Weather, Sea Rise+

     Below are articles about impacts from (and on) Weather, Sea Level Rise, and Floods.  Weather has 7 sub-groups.  Plans and measures to deal with sea level rise are a sub-group under Adaptation.  Information about how fast seas have risen, are rising, and will rise is found on the Water page.  A few files here are duplicated on other pages.

     Month and year follow each article's name.  PDF files are so marked, after month and date, some with authors noted.  Within sections, more recent files appear above older files.

    Diagrams are generally immediately below the summary articles from which they were taken.

Weather - Jet Stream & Arctic

Loss of Arctic Sea Ice to Give Rise to More of Strong El Niños 0922

How the Jet Stream Is Connected to Simultaneous Heat Waves Across the Globe 0722

‘Drastic’ Rise in High Arctic Lightning Worries Scientists 0122

Climate Change Has Destabilized Earth’s Poles, Imperiling the Rest of the Planet 1221

How Melting Arctic Sea Ice Caused $90 Billion Texas Freeze 0921

Arctic Climate Change May Not Be Making Winter Jet Stream Weird after All 0821

Big Winter Snows in the North Could Be Fueled by Arctic Sea Ice Loss 0421 - Remove sea ice.  More water evaporates.

Climate-Driven Arctic Changes Are Interconnected, Says 2020 Report Card 1220

Warm Arctic, Cold Continents?  - Counterintuitive, but Real 1120

Antarctic Ice Melt Related to Tropical Weather Shifts – a Game Changer? 0420

What an Ice-Free Arctic Really Means, and Why It Matters So Much 0919

Arctic Sea Ice Loss May Not Cause Cold Winters in the U.S. and Asia after All 0819

Lightning Struck within 300 Miles of the North Pole on Saturday 0819

Global Warming Is Messing with the Jet Stream, Bringing More Extreme Weather 1018

Summer Weather Is Getting 'Stuck', due to Arctic Warming 0818

The Arctic Is Breaking Climate Records, Altering Weather Worldwide 0418

The Controversial Link between Epic Storms and a Warming Arctic 0318

Why So Cold?  Climate Change May Be Part of the Answer 0118

Arctic Warming Linked to Wet Summers and Snowy Winters in the UK 0118

Warmer Arctic Is the ‘New Normal' 1217

Ice Loss and the Polar Vortex - How a Warming Arctic Fuels Cold Snaps 0917

The Arctic as It Is Known Today Is Almost Certainly Gone 0417

An Unusually Warm Arctic Year - Sign of Future Climate Turmoil? 1216

Polar Vortex Shifting due to Climate Change, Extending Winter 1016

Arctic Warming Is Possibly Catastrophic for Planet, Climate Scientist Warns 0216

Rapid Arctic Ice Loss Linked to Extreme Weather Changes in Europe and US 0615

Arctic Melt Brings More Persistent Heat Waves to U.S., Europe 0315

Arctic Spitsbergen Faces an Ice-pocalypse 1114

Crazy Weather Traced to Arctic's Impact on Jet Stream 0914

The material below is from

                 PRE-INDUSTRIAL                                                 NOW
     As the simple diagrams show, the temperature-gradient between the Arctic and the warmer latitudes has lessened. The strength of the jet stream is influenced by the size of the temperature gradient.  Thus, warming the Arctic leads to a weakening of the jet stream (from 13.3 to 12.0 m/s over 30 years in the 2nd graph below) and a greater tendency to meander (1st graph below) as it slows down. As this meandering develops, troughs may be expected to extend further southwards and ridges to push further northwards.  However, recent research suggests a greater northwards component to this behavior; the Polar jet stream has moved northwards (see turquoise dotted line in the 3rd graph below).

Wind speed is solid line, Ice area dashed, in million sq km.

Cold Winters in Europe, Asia Linked to Sea Ice Decline 1014

Melting Arctic Ice Link to Extreme Weather Explored 1014

Storms Are Becoming More Intense, Moving Toward Poles 1113

94° in Alaska?  Weather Extremes Tied to Jet Stream 0613

Why the Jet Stream Is Slowing and Getting Wavier 0413

Climate Change Alters Jet Stream Patterns 0213

Violent Polar Storms Help Control Earth's Weather 1212

Arctic Ice Melt Could Mean More Extreme Winters for US, Europe 0912

Arctic Meltdown Triggers Colder Winters Nearby 0612

Arctic Warming is Changing World Weather Patterns 0412

Linking Weird Weather to Rapid Arctic Warming 0312

Tropic Belts Widened 140 Miles - Seidel (& Fu, Randel, Reichler) 1207 - PDF

Troposphere Expanded 0606 - PDF

Weather - Worldwide

Loss of Arctic Sea Ice to Give Rise to More of Strong El Niños 0922

UN Weather Agency Predicts Rare ‘Triple-Dip’ La Niña over 2020-22 - 0822

Climate Change Is Killing People and Taking Trillions of Dollars 0722

Extreme Rainfall Will Be Worse, More Frequent than We Thought 0722

Climate Change Driving Multiple Extreme Weather Events Happening at Once 0622

Atmospheric River That Ravaged Yellowstone Is Part of Climate Change Pattern 0622

Shifts in El Niño May Be Driving Climates Extremes in Both Hemispheres 0322

 Weather, Climate Disasters Surge 5-fold in 50 Years 0921

‘No One Is Safe’ - Extreme Weather Batters the Wealthy World 0721

Global Warming Makes Extreme Weather a Regular Event 0621

How Climate Change Is Affecting Winter Storms 1220

NOAA Declares La Niña.  It Will Affect Hurricane Season and Dominate Winter 0920

Heat Waves Have Become Longer in Most of the World since 1950s 0720

Climate Change Has Made Summers Longer, Winters Dramatically Shorter 0620

Black Carbon Is Supercharging El Niño 0420

Melting Arctic Sea Ice May Be Altering Winds, Weather at Equator 0120

Extreme Weather Has Created a Climate Emergency 0919

What an Ice-Free Arctic Really Means, and Why It Matters So Much 0919

Climate Change Has Increased Humidity in D.C., Making It Feel Even Hotter 0819

Rising Humidity Makes Even Modest Heat Waves Unbearable as Climate Changes 0819

Global Warming Intensifies ‘New Climate Regime’s ‘Extraordinary’ Heat Waves 0619

Climate Change Has Made Urban Pollution and Thunderstorms More Destructive 0219

2017 Broke Records for Extreme Weather 1218

Last 3 Years Were Hottest on Record, Severe Weather Hits 2018 - U.N. 0318

Global Warming Makes Weather Events More Extreme than Possible without It 1217

Fires, Droughts, Hurricanes - Link between Climate Change, Natural Disasters? 0917

Weather Disasters to Impact 2 out of 3 Europeans by 2100, Study Says 0817 - European Commission sponsor

When It’s Hot, Plants Become a Surprisingly Large Source of Air Pollution 0517

It’s Like It Never Left - Another El Niño May Be on the Way 0417

Carbon Pollution Linked to Extreme Weather Again 0417

‘Human Fingerprint’ Found on Global Extreme Weather 0317

Global Warming's Fingerprints Seen in 24 Weird Weather Cases 1216

An Unusually Warm Arctic Year - Sign of Future Climate Turmoil? 1216

Pollution from India and China Has Reached the Stratosphere 1116

Stratosphere Shrinks, as Record Heating Continues, due to Climate Change 1116

Climate Data since Vikings Cast Doubt on More Wet, Dry Extremes 0416

El Niño’s Disastrous Worldwide Consequences Are Just Getting Started 0316

Some Extreme Weather Now Reliably Linked to Climate Change 0316

Global Warming Already Driving Increases in Rainfall Extremes 0316

U.S. Forecaster Sees La Niña Possibly Succeeding El Niño 0316

The Mystery of the Expanding Tropics 0216 - Why are they AND sub-tropics spreading far faster than models predict?

Fire, Floods, Tornadoes - Fatal Weather Rounds out a Year of Extremes in 2015 -1215

Global Warming's Fingerprints Are All over Recent Extreme Weather 1115

Global Warming Linked to Greater Number of Hurricanes near Hawaii 1115

Is a Strong El Niño on the Horizon?  Forecasters Say Count on It 0715

Most Extreme Weather Has Climate Change Link 0615

The Deadly Combination of Heat and Humidity 0615

'Substantial' El Niño Event Predicted 0515

El Niño Could ‘Disrupt Food Markets' 0515

Welcome to the 'Double El Niño' — and More Extreme Weather 0315

Why China's Pollution Could Be Behind Our Cold, Snowy Winters 0315

Global Warming Could Make Blizzards Worse 0115

How Global Warming Is Making Heat Waves and Precipitation More Extreme 1114

Storm Warning -  Southern Ocean's Winds of Climate Change 0714

In Extreme Weather, More Sign of Human Fingerprints 0914

Tropical Storms Migrate Toward Poles 0514

Asian Air Pollution Strengthens Pacific Storms 0414

Wilder Winds, Less Rain, as Roaring Forties Become Furious Fifties 0414

Pollution Yields Larger, Deeper, Longer-Lived Clouds, So Colder Days, Warmer Nights 1113

New Rainfall Pattern Is 'Fingerprint' of Climate Change 1113

Man-made Climate Change Helped Set Stage for Wild 2012 Weather 0913

Climate Extremes Are Unprecedented 0713

El Niño Unusually Active in Late 20th Century 0613

Warmest Decade Brings Record Temperatures and Weather Extremes 0213

2012 Another Record for Weather Extremes 1212

IPCC Extreme Weather Events 2012 - PDF
Its 2 map-graphs are quite complex.

2011 Set Record for Weather Extremes 0112

Weather’s New Daily More Erratic Pattern Confirmed 1111 

New GHG Link to Weather Extremes 0211

Weather - Hurricane Damage

"Nothing to Come Back to"- Most Homes Are Gone in Fort Myers 0922

Ian, a Hurricane Again, Heads to Carolinas, after Historic Damage to Florida 0922

Hurricane Fiona Ravages Puerto Rican Farms near Peak Harvest, Farmers Say 0922

Fiona’s Surreal Devastation Wipes Away Canadian Homes and Power for 1,000s - 0922

Philippines on High Alert as ‘Explosive’ Super Typhoon Noru Makes Landfall 0922

Typhoon Batters South Korea, Preparations Minimize Casualties 0922

Deaths amid Flooding and Mudslides as Hurricane Agatha Hits Mexico 0522

Climate Change Boosted Cost of Japan Storm by $4 Billion 0522

North Carolina Hurricanes Linked to More Gastrointestinal Illness among Poor 0322

375 Dead, 56 Missing after Typhoon Rai Slams Philippines 1221

Rare and Deadly Cyclone Sends Cars Floating through Italy’s Streets 1021

Hurricane Ida Threw the Barge Industry into a Tizzy along the Mississippi River 0921

New York City Region's Historic Floods Send Deadly Climate Change Lesson 0921

Ida Leaves Toxic Chemicals, Sewage Swirling in Its Wake 0921 - Louisiana mostly

Will the 2 Hurricanes That Devastated Central America Spur a Migration Wave? 1220

Battered by Back-to-Back Hurricanes, Honduras Braces for a Long Recovery 1120

Weakened Hurricane Eta Drenches Central America; at Least 57 Dead 1120

Japan Orders Millions to Evacuate as Typhoon Lashes Region 0920

Climate Crisis to Blame for $67 Billion of Hurricane Harvey Damage 0620

Tropical Storm Hits South Carolina Ahead of Atlantic Season 0520

Abnormally Warm Gulf of Mexico Could Intensify Tornado and Hurricane Seasons 0320

Yutu, Strongest Typhoon to Hit U.S. since 1935, Devastates Northern Marianas 1018

Grim Search for Typhoon Landslide Victims as Philippines Toll Climbs 0918

Hurricane Florence Leaves over a Dozen Dead, 100s of 1,000s without Power - 0918

Hurricane Maria’s Death Toll in Puerto Rico Rises to 2,975 - 0818

By the End of the Century, Stronger, Slower, and Wetter Hurricanes 0518

Climate Change Made Hurricane Harvey's Rainfall Worse, Study Finds 1217

Life on the Front Line of Climate Change for Fiji’s Women and Girls 1117
     Cyclone Winston in 2016 was strongest storm in Southern Hemisphere’s recorded history.  Recovery is hard and slow.

Puerto Ricans Still Desperate for Water, Weeks after Hurricane Maria 1017

Hurricane Maria Dealt a Heavy Blow to Puerto Rico’s Fragile Electric Grid 0917

As Trump Set to Visit Puerto Rico, 95% Lack Power 1017

Puerto Rico’s Agriculture and Farmers Decimated by Maria 0917

Hurricane Maria Dealt a Heavy Blow to Puerto Rico’s Fragile Electric Grid 0917

Winston, Southern Hemisphere’s Strongest Storm on Record, Punishes Fiji 0216

Atlantic, Caribbean Storms More Destructive as Temperatures Rise 0116

Sandy Caused Record Sea Levels, $23 Billion Damages in New York State 0715

Climate Change Blamed as Vanuatu Recovers from ‘Monster’ Storm 0315

Super Typhoon Haiyan, One Year Later - 205,000 Families Still Homeless 1114

The $9.7 Trillion Problem - Cyclones & Climate Change 1014

Super Typhoon Haiyan Kills at Least 1,200 Filipinos 1113

Super Typhoon Haiyan- Full of Sound and Fury and Signifying … ?  1113

Cyclone Forces 550,000 to Shelters in India 1013

Isaac Drove Mississippi River Uphill 0812 

Cold Hurricane Slams Alaska 1111

Weather - US

Western Wildfires Are Fueling Extreme Weather in Other States 1022

Climate Change Makes Lightning More Likely.  Here’s Why That’s a Big Deal. 0822

Atmospheric River That Ravaged Yellowstone Is Part of Climate Change Pattern 0622

Violent Storms Blast Upper Midwest with Hurricane-Force Winds, Dust 0522

Record Heat Fueling Severe Storms, Tornadoes in Central U.S. 0522

1/3 of Americans Faced Extreme Weather in Recent Years 0422

Weather Disasters Affected 1 in 10 US Homes Last Year 0222

December Brings Record Spate of Hurricane-Force Winds across the Central US 1221

December Tornadoes Are Part of ‘New Normal’ in Changed Climate - FEMA Chief 1221

Tornadoes Tear through South and Midwest.  At Least 70 Dead in Kentucky. 1221

Nowhere Is Ready for This Heat 0621 - US Northwest records for hottest temperature ever  include Portland 116°F (7° hotter than previous record), Salem 117°, Hermiston OR 118°, and Seattle 108° (5° hotter than previous record).

Pacific Northwest Heat Wave Shatters Temperature Records 0621

Records Crushed in Pacific Northwest amid Historic Heat Wave 0621 - New hottest temperature ever records were also notably higher the previous ones i in Eugene and The Dalles OR, and Olympia, Hoquiam, and Stampede Pass WA. 

Your Weather Forecast Update - Warmer Climate Will Be the New Normal 0421

Drought-Breaking Rains Have Grown Rarer, More Erratic in US West 0421

Hail Is America’s Most Underrated Climate Risk 0221

California’s Rainy Season Now Starts a Month Later than It Used to 0221

Kentucky’s Climate Is Suffering 0920

California Has 1st Rolling Blackouts since 2001, as Heat Wave Bakes Western US 0820

Dangerously Intense, Prolonged, and Humid Heat Wave for Most of California 0820

Extreme Weather Just Devastated 10 Million Acres in the Midwest.  Expect More. 0820

As July Sizzles, Here’s How Climate Change Affects Weather 0720

Dry Lightning Risk Rises in U.S. West, Thanks to Tardy Monsoon 0720

In Dozens of Cities East of the Mississippi River, Winter Never Really Happened 0320

Climate Change Shrinks Winter Snow in the South, in Fall and Spring Elsewhere 0220

Monsoon Rains Have Become More Intense in the U.S. Southwest 0719

May Was the 2nd-Wettest Month in the U.S. since 1895 - 0619

Climate Change and Tornadoes - a Succinct Guide to What We Know 0519

Wettest 12 Months in US Record Left It Drought-Free.  But Flooding Is Rampant 0519

North America’s Arid / Humid Boundary Has Shifted 140 Miles East due to Global Warming 0418

Researchers See Shift in Tornado Activity 0218

Why So Cold?  Climate Change May Be Part of the Answer 0118

Trump Tweets that ‘Cold' East Coast ‘Could Use a Little Bit of' Global Warming 1217

Scientists Concerned about Increased Humidity in Mason City, Iowa 0817

It’s So Hot in Phoenix That Planes Can’t Take Off 0617

Super-Cold Winters in the UK and US Are Due to Arctic Warming 1016

Extreme Tornado Outbreaks Are Becoming More Extreme 1216

Human-Caused Warming Drove 2015’s Record Snow Drought in West Coast States 1116

Ellicott City, Maryland Gets Once a Millennium Rainfall 0716

Flooding In Europe.  Texas Suffers 500-Year Flood for 2nd Year in a Row. 0616

Meltdown - More Rain, Less Snow as the World Warms 0416

Do Pacific Waters Give Early Warning of East Coast Heat Waves? 0316

US East Coast Snowstorms Linked to Slowdown of Atlantic Current 0116

Number of US Blizzards Doubled in Past 20 Years 0116

What Happened to El Niño?  Be Patient, L.A., It'll Come, Expert Says 0116

Most Powerful El Niño Storm of the Winter Hits California 0116

Latest Forecast Suggests 'Godzilla El Niño' May Be Coming to California 0815

Is a Strong El Niño on the Horizon?  Forecasters Say Count on It 0715

Across the U.S., Heaviest Downpours on the Rise 0515

Scientists Warn to Expect More Weather Extremes 0515

Drought Making California's Air Quality Worse, American Lung Assn. Says 0415

Lake Tahoe’s Winter, Way of Life Threatened by Drought, Climate Change 0315

Why China's Pollution Could Be Behind Our Cold, Snowy Winters 0315

Hey Boston, Alaska called.  It wants its snow and cold weather back. 0215

Climate Change in Minnesota - More Heat, More Big Storms 0215

Global Warming Could Make Blizzards Worse 0115

US Study Finds Tornadoes Coming in Swarms 1014

Tornadoes Coming Earlier in 'Tornado Alley’ 0914

Tornado Outbreaks Could Have a Climate Change Assist 0814

Higher Pacific Temperatures Bring Monsoons to Southland 0814

California Drought - El Niño Probability Raised to 78% for Next Winter 0514

Air Quality Gains Could Be Eroded by Drought, Climate Change 0414

Will Global Warming Produce More Tornadoes? 0414

Hot West, Cold East May be the Norm as World Warms 0414

US Winter Outlook Dominated by Dire Drought News 1113

Yup'ik Villages Ravaged by Fierce Alaska Storms 1113

Tornado Damages Paducah Nuclear Fuel Plant 1113

Record June Heat in US Southwest 0613

Rain - Sign of the Times in Philadelphia? 0613

Drought, Flood Signal Iowa's Future 0613

Increased Rate of Weather Disasters in Ohio Linked to Global Warming 0513

Wild Weather Swings May Be a Sign of Climate Change 0413

US Tornadoes by Year & Rating 0413 - PDF graph

Warming Has Doubled Risk of Katrina Surges 0313

Midwest Increase in Heavy Rainfalls Over 60 Years 0313

Heavier Rainfall in Midwest from Warming 0313

Has Abnormal Become the New Extreme Normal Weather? 0313

Climate Change Worsens Northeast Storms - Trenberth, NCAR 0213

Sandy Leaves East Coast Vulnerable 0113

2012 Is US' 2nd Costliest Year 1212

Poor Hit Hardest by Extreme Weather 1112

How Much Climate Change Was In Hurricane Sandy 1112

Pacific Patterns Tied to Violent Tornado Outbreaks 1012

June US Heat Wave Records 0612

Intense Rains in US Midwest Doubled Since 1960 - 0512  (heavy = the heaviest 1% of all daily events)

        Observed US Trends in Heavy Rain (1.0 + Relative #)                    % Change in Heavy Precipitation by Region

US Hit by Record 12 Weather Events Exceeding $1B in 2011 1211

Irene Sets Record As the 10th $ B Loss Event in US in One Year 0911 

US Weather Losses Tie Annual Record 0811

So Many US Weather Extremes Never Seen Before in a Single Month 0611

Weather - Other Places

Climate Change Threatens Europe with New Weather Extremes 0422

China Is Hit by Extreme Weather 0721

China’s Heat Wave Is Pushing Coal Prices Toward Record Level 0721

Lytton, B.C., Village at Center of Canada’s Heat Wave, Devastated by Wildfires 0721

 ‘Hard to Comprehend’ - Experts React to Record 121°F in Canada 0621

N.W.T., Yukon Break Summer Temperature Records as Heat Dome Lingers 0621

Temperature of 121°F Sets Canada’s New National Record High 0721 - shatters pre-2021 record by 8°F.  Local records across British Columbia were also shattered, by up to 12°F (Cache Creek), and 3-4 others by more than 10°F.  121°F is hotter than has ever been recorded in Las Vegas, Dallas or San Antonio.  It tied Death Valley that day for the hottest temperature in North Anerica.

At 116°, Heat in Western Canada Shatters National Record 0621 - Lytton B.C.  Also record highs in Kamloops, Cache Creek, Lilloet, Kelowna, Victoria, Vancouver, Penticton, Vernon, Nelson, etc.  Most by several degrees.

Heat Records Crumble in Europe and Russia, amid Scorching Heat Wave 0621

Record-Breaking Temperatures Recorded in Arctic Russia 0621

Record Heat Bakes Middle East as Temperatures Top 125°F 0621

Record Heat Scorches Western Russia, Central Canada, Ringing Climate Alarm 0521

Europe Smashes Monthly Temperature Records beneath Sprawling Heat Dome 0421

This Russian Arctic Coast Has Planet's Quickest Warming 0321

Australia's Record Spring Heat Is 1-in-500,000 without Climate Change 1220

Climate Change Makes Indian Monsoon Season Stronger and More Chaotic 0421

Rising CO2 Levels Increasing Extreme Weather Events in Australia 1120

Climate Change May Kickstart Dormant El Niño Weather System in Indian Ocean 0520

Australia's Fire-Driven Storms Are Pumping Smoke into the Stratosphere 0120\\     

Researchers Warn of ‘Unexpected Implications' as Climate Risks Converge 0719

Climate Change Could Be Intensifying Dust Storms in India 0518

Europe Saw a Spike in Extreme Weather Over Past 5 Years 0318

Europe's Hot, Fiery Summer Linked to Global Warming 0917

London Mayor Issues Emergency Air Quality Alert, amid Heat Wave 0617

Scientists Link Another Record-Breaking Weather Event to Climate Change 0617

Climate Change Brings More Sahel Storms 0517

Extreme Weather More Likely to Hit Alberta as Temperatures Heat Up 0417

Rising Waters Threaten China’s Rising Cities 0417

Climate Change 'Makes Deadly China Pollution Worse’ 0317

Abnormal El Niño in Peru Unleashes Deadly Downpours, More Flooding Seen 0317

Pollution from India and China Has Reached the Stratosphere 1116

Over 80,000 Reindeer Deaths In Russia Linked to Retreating Arctic Sea Ice 1116 - rain (not snow) turned to thick ice

3 Straight Failed Monsoons, Bad Drought, Make Angry Clashes in Karnataka 0916

In Warming Oceans, Stronger Currents Releasing Heat in Bigger Storms 0716

Climate Change Warming Asian Waters, Altering Monsoon 0716

Why the Sahel Rains Failed – and Why They May Return 0116

December 2015 Was the Wettest Month Ever Recorded in UK 0116 - much the warmest too

Fire, Floods, Tornadoes - Fatal Weather Rounds out a Year of Extremes in 2015 - 1215

Global Warming's Fingerprints Are All over Recent Extreme Weather 1115

Laos Counts Climate Change Costs - Record Floods, Drought and Landslides 1115

Warming Indian Ocean Weakens India’s Monsoon 0615

The Climate Context for India’s Deadly Heat Wave 0615

Climate Change Could Shrink Mount Everest’s Glaciers by 70% - 0515

El Niño Could Bring Drought and Famine in West Africa 0515

El Niño Outlook Daunting for Aussie Farmers Already in Drought’s Grip 0515

Sydney Storms Intensify as Engineers Begin to Adjust to Climate Change 0415

Southeast Asia Faces Increasingly Intense Climate Events 0415

Climate Change Costs for India 0315

Climate Change Blamed as Vanuatu Recovers from ‘Monster’ Storm 0315

Man-Made Air Pollution Reduces Central America Rainfall 0215

Could Storms Signal a British ‘Monsoon Season'? 0115

Indian Science Congress - Shift in Monsoon Patterns Worries Experts 0115

With Climate Change, Himalayas' Future is Warmer, Not Necessarily Brighter 0115

As Shepherds Watched, It Got Hotter and Hotter 1214

Fast Finland Warming Means Blue Christmas for Santa 1214

Sydney & New South Wales to Become Hotter, with More Fire Danger Days 1214

UK Winter Wettest on Record - Met Office 0214

India’s Snow Season Shrinking by 11 Days / Decade 1113

Peru Snowstorms Spark State of Emergency in Andes 0913

Mega Heat Waves to Become Norm for UK over Next Decade 0813

China Tries Hi-Tech Rain Dance, as It Roasts in Heat Wave 0813

Australian Climate Change Risks Security, Health, 90% of Irrigated Agriculture 0813

India's Monsoon Has Dried Out 5-6% Over Past Few Decades, from Global Warming 0813

China's Soaring Temperatures Prompts Grade 2 Alert 0713

British National Farmers' Union Warns of Grass Fires, as Heat Continues 0713 

Canadian Economy Threatened by Extreme Weather 0713

Record Hot Australian Summer Due to Human-Caused Global Warming 0613

Singapore Haze at Record Hazard Level from Sumatra's Fires 0613

UK Wet Summers Due to Atlantic Warming 0613

Singapore, Malaysia Choke as Illegal Indonesia Forest Fires Rage 0613 

Pakistan Wilts Under Record Heat Wave 0613

Hawaii Gets Muggy as Trade Winds Drop 0613

Italy Shivers Thru Relentless Spring Rain 0513

Alberta's Weather Insured Losses Mount 0513

India Heat Wave Causes Power Outages, Anger 0513

Aussie Angry Summer Is Taste of Future 0313

In Britain, the Recent Droughts and Floods Will Become Common 0313

Australia's Floods and Fires Blamed on Climate Change 0113

2012 was UK's 2nd Wettest, England's Wettest 0113

Extreme Rainfall in UK Increasing 0113

England's Wettest Year on Record 1212

Forest Loss 1700-1850 Weakened Monsoons in India & China 0609

Weather - Snow

Massive Snowfall Increases among Alaska’s Highest Peaks Stuns Scientists 1217

Climate Paradox - Less Snow, More Blizzards 0213

Warming Brings Heavier Snowstorms 0213

Weather - Future

Loss of Arctic Sea Ice to Give Rise to More of Strong El Niños 0922

A Michigan Summer Day Could Be as Hot as the Deep South by 2100 - 0822

Warming World Could Add More Fuel to Tornadoes 1221

Climate Change Makes Indian Monsoon Season Stronger and More Chaotic 0421

Projected Surge of Lightning Spells More Wildfire Trouble for the Arctic 0421

Climate Change to Shift Earth’s Tropical Rain Belt 0121

Super El Niño Events May Become More Frequent as the Climate Warms 1019

What an Ice-Free Arctic Really Means, and Why It Matters So Much 0919

Athletes Told Congress They Fear  Demise of Winter Sports from Global Warming 0919

Research over Millennia Links Shrinking Sea Ice to Less Rain in Central North America 0319

Extreme Weather Threatens African Society and Economy 1018

New El Niño Weather Event Likely This Winter, Says WMO 0918

Wind and Solar Farms Can Make Their Own Weather, with Extra Rain over Sahara 0918

Climate Change Will Make El Niño/La Niña Impacts Stronger 0918

The People Most Hurt by Climate Swings Did the Least to Cause Them 0518
     Climate variability (drought to flood and back, etc.), relative to local past norms, is gretest in the tropics.

California's Wild Extremes of Drought and Floods to Worsen as Climate Warms 0418

Climate Change May Mean More Spring Snowstorms in the Future 0318

El Niño Might Speed Up Climate Change 1217 - Tropical forests emit more carbon, absorb less.  Forest fires.

Even Minor Global Warming Could Worsen Super El Niños 0717

Shifting Storms under Climate Change to Worsen Coastal Perils 0717

Australia Could Suffer from Droughts, Heat Waves as the Tropical Zone Expands 0717

Warmth Will Worsen Wet and Dry Extremes 0617

'Alarming'- Keeping Warming to 1.5°C to Shield Australia from Big Extremes 0517

Tornado Deaths and Destruction to Triple in Coming Decades 0517 - more people and property in tornado paths

Severe Weather Changes Ahead, Warn Scientists at Climate Forum 0517

Extreme Storms Will Be a Lot More Frequent as Climate Warms 1216

Climate Change Warming Asian Waters, Altering Monsoon 0716

Arctic Warming Is Possibly Catastrophic for Planet, Climate Scientist Warns 0216

West Likely to Be Stormier with Climate Change 0216

Climate Scientists Fear ‘Day After Tomorrow’ Scenario 0915

Concerns Deepen about a Climate-Change ‘Wild Card’ 0915 - shutdown of ocean thermohaline circulation

Surge In ‘Danger Days’ Just around the Corner 0815

Climate Change Could Give San Francisco the Climate of San Diego 0815

The Deadly Combination of Heat and Humidity 0615

Sydney Storms Intensify as Engineers Begin to Adjust to Climate Change 0415

Welcome to the 'Double El Niño' — and More Extreme Weather 0315

Arctic Melt Brings More Persistent Heat Waves to U.S., Europe 0315

US 'at Risk of Mega-Drought Future’ 0215 - See Overviews page for maps of effects and PDF of study.

Global Warming May Spawn More Southeast US Tornadoes 0215

Climate Change in Minnesota - More Heat, More Big Storms 0215

Climate Change Will Hit Australia Harder Than Rest of the World 0115

Global Warming Could Make Blizzards Worse 0115

Global Warming ‘Doubles Risk' of Extreme Weather 0115

With Climate Change, Himalayas' Future is Warmer, Not Necessarily Brighter 0115

Concern about Extremes, as Planet Gets Hotter and Colder 1214

Tropical Deforestation Could Disrupt Rainfall Globally 1214 -        take #1 on study

Tropical Deforestation Threatens Global Food Production 1214 -  take #2 on study

Weather Extremes Will Be the Norm as World Warms 1114

Risk from Extreme Weather Set to Rise 1114

Thunderstruck - Lightning Will Increase with Warming 1114

Every Other Summer Will Be a Heat Wave in Eastern China 1014

Storm Warning - the Winds of Climate Change 0714

What to Expect When You’re Expecting El Niño 0414

Big El Niño Coming? 0414

Thunderstorms Will Get Worse, Tornadoes Commoner, as Climate Warms 0813

Changes in Store as Ohio Warms 0813 - see also Food Impacts.  Based on changes observed in temperature and precipitation over the past century.

Can Extreme Weather Make Climate Change Worse? 0813  Droughts cut CO2 absorption.

North Carolina Forecast Calls for Heat, Drought, Storms 0713

Drought, Flood Signal Iowa's Future 0613

Intense Thunderstorms More Likely to Batter a Warming World 0613

Southwest US Monsoon Season May Heat Up with the Climate 0513

Warming Climate Likely Means More Floods, Droughts - NASA 0513

Hawaii Will Get Less Rain, Due To Global Warming 0413

Future US Severe Thunderstorm Frequency 0413 - PDF map

Warming to Bring Lots More Severe Thunderstorms to Southeast 0413

Record Rain in Argentina Is Sign of Things to Come 0413

High Price of Melbourne's (Australia) Hot Weather, to Mid-Century 0113

India Could Face Crippling Heat Waves 1212

Megastorms (Atmospheric Rivers) Could Drown Much of California (More Often) 1112

Stronger Storms May Destroy Much of Stratospheric Ozone 0712

Tornadoes Will Come Earlier with Warming 0312

Climate Change in the Midwest - UCS 0809 - PDF, 24 pages

average summer temperatures and rainfall for 1961-90, 2010-39, 2040-69 & 2070-99.
Red is for the high emissions scenario, orange for the low emissions scenario.

Heat Wave Temps to Soar 0708 - e.g., LA 117° F, KC 116, Chicago 115, Atlanta 110, Paris 109, Delhi 120, Belém (Brazil) 121, south of France 118°.  People will look back at 2008 as the good old cool days.

US 20-Year Rain & Heat Events to Become 8- & 3-Year Ones by 2050 and 2100 - 0608 

Tornados to Increase with Warming 1207 - esp. in FL & southern Plains in spring, then the whole eastern US in summer

Weather - Future: Northeast

     Weather changes in other parts of the US (and the world) will be broadly similar to those projected for the Northeast.  By 2100, places in the Northeast would get 50-60 more days over 90°F and 3-20 more days 100°F.  A larger fraction of rain would come in intense events (days with more than 2 inches would rise 40-50%).  1-3 month droughts would double, 3-6 month droughts triple, and droughts longer than 6 months quadruple.  Winter days with snow on the ground would fall to a quarter to half as many as now.

Migrating Climates in the Northeast & Their Impacts - UCS 0707 - PDF, 160 pages

The UCS maps of migrating climates show how the climate in states now will feel like states further south (& a little west) in mid-century, and much further late this century.  Averaged across all 15 states, in the high emissions case, it's like moving 330 miles SSW for 2040-69 and 660 miles SSW for 2070-99.
      For example, by the end of the century, New Hampshire would feel like the Piedmont today in North Carolina and Virginia, unless we cut carbon emissions deeply.  Rhode Island's climate would be like Savannah's.  Indiana's climate would resemble today's Virginia in winter and Oklahoma in summer.  Minnesota's summer climate would resemble the Kansas climate of today.  By 2100, absent steep carbon emission cuts, western Pennsylvania's climate would feel like Alabama's today.
      See for maps of how climate would make for 9 Northeast states.  Similarly, see for maps of how climate would make for 9 Great Lakes states.

Changing Northeast Climate - UCS 1006  - PDF, 52 pp

Projected Number of Droughts / 30 Years (short-, medium-, and long-term)

Projected Number of Snow-Covered Days per Month (Dec, Jan & Feb)

Weather - Mixed or Other

How Extreme Weather Can Disrupt Energy Supply 0220

Trees Could Change the Climate More than Scientists Thought 1018

Pollution Yields Larger, Deeper, Longer-Lived Clouds, So Colder Days, Warmer Nights 1113

As Michigan Warms, Cotton Instead of Cherry and Grapes? 0713

‘Drunken’ Weather Pattern Leads to Deadly Heat 0713 - Bermuda High moved to Ohio in 2013.  Similar anomaly for record Russia heat in 2010.

Arctic Seasonality Eroded by Climate Change 0313

Brown Cloud Harms Asia - UNEP 1108 - PDF, 44 pp

Edges of Tropics Push Toward Poles - Caused by Warming 0208.  For the original study (Seidel 1207, summarizing 5 others), see the No Water page, under Atmospheric Changes, almost at the bottom.  See graph and diagram from the 1207 study, near top of this page.

Amazon Climate Impacts - WWF 0306 - PDF

Sea Level Rise

     For detailed amounts of sea level rise - past, present and future - see the Water page: Oceans: Sea Level Rise.

Graph below is from U.S. National Climate Assessment (2013).

Floods Displace Villagers in Indonesia 1022

Another City, Bangkok, Is Drowning and We Can’t Look Away 1022

Rising Seas Could Swallow Millions of U.S. Acres within Decades 0922

Sea level graph at right is from State of the Climate in 2021 - World Meteorological Organization, 1021.

Saltwater Intrusion Is a “Slow Poison” to East Coast Drinking Water 0822

Rising Seas Are the Next Crisis for the World’s Ports 0722

The Wetlands Are Drowning 0522

Salt Scourge - The Dual Threat of Warming and Rising Salinity 0522

Climate Change Threatens Nearly 1/3 of U.S. Hazardous Chemical Facilities 0322

The Battle to Save Waikiki Beach 0122

The U.S. Navy Has a Water Problem 0919 - focus on Norfolk area in Virginia

Climate Change Could Leave Millions of Miles of US Roads Inoperable in 30 Years 1121

Our Underwater Future - How Sea Level Rise Will Look around the Globe 1021

London’s Tube Could Turn Unbearably Hot, Stations Flooded by Climate Change 0921

EU-Backed Study Shows Alarming State of Oceans 0921 - accelerating sea level rise is one facet

Sea-Level Rise Becoming Hazard for South Florida Neighborhoods Far Inland 0921

The Race to Save London’s Underground from Flooding 0821

Rising Seas Pose an ‘Existential Threat’ to Boston Subway System 0721

Boston Could See a Rash of Flooding in Years to Come from Climate Change 0721 - high-tide flooding

Condo Collapse Could Stoke Miami Climate Fear in Home Buyers 0721

Miami Tower Collapse Stokes New Fears of Rising Seas 0621

Up to 410 Million People at Risk from Sea Level Rises 0621

'The Water Is Coming’ - Florida Keys Face Stark Reality as Seas Rise 0621

‘Now, It’s about Elevation’ - Buying a South Florida Home in a Sea Level Rise Era 0521

Sea Level Rise Added $8 Billion to Hurricane Sandy’s Damage 0521

100s of Coastal Airports at Risk from Flooding, Sea-Level Rise 0521

We Must Start Refreezing the Arctic Ocean Very Soon to Save Our Megacities 0121

Sea Level Rise Cuts Some Norfolk Stormwater System Capacity 50% 0121

Raising Roads for Sea Rise in Florida Keys Could Cost Residents $1.8 Billion 1220

King Tides, Boosted by Rising Seas, Floods Communities along the East Coast 1020

Florida Sees Signals of a Climate-Driven Housing Crisis 1020

NZ’s Antarctic Scott Base Plans for Sea Level Rise – and Fall 0920

Charleston Sues Fossil Fuel Companies for $2 Billion to Fight Climate Floods 0920

Some California Cities Think They’re Safe from Sea Level Rise.  They’re Not. 0820

Coastal Flooding Could Hit 20% of World GDP by 2100 - 0720 - 20% each year

New Data Shows an ‘Extraordinary’ Rise in U.S. Coastal Flooding 0720

Loss of Louisiana Marshes That Protect New Orleans Is ‘Probably Inevitable’ 0520

As Sea Levels Rise, Will Drinking Water Supplies Be at Risk? 0420

Flooding Will Affect Twice as Many People Worldwide by 2030 - 0420

US to Have Major Floods Daily unless Sea-Level Rise Is Curbed 0420

Sea Level Rise Could Cut 15% Off Value of Florida Coastal Homes by 2030 - 0120

82 Days Underwater in Florida Keys - the Tide Is High, but They’re Holding On 1119

Venice Floods - Climate Change behind Highest Tide in 50 Years, Says Mayor 1119

Far More People Are Threatened by Rising Seas than Scientists Realized 1019

Rising Seas Will Erase More Cities by 2050, New Research Shows 1019

How Extreme Sea Level Events Are Going to Increase in Australia 1019
     sea flooding days become more 
frequent as seas rise

Extreme Sea Level Events ‘Will Hit Once a Year by 2050’ - 0919 extreme = 1 / century, now

The Melting Arctic is Shanghai's Worst Nightmare 0919

Climate Change Is About to Split High Arctic Spitzbergen in 2 - 0919

Bangladesh Is Disappearing under Rising Tides 0919

Retreating from Rising Seas Isn’t a Win or a Defeat — it’s Reality 0919

Louisiana’s Coastline Is Disappearing.  Can the Bayou Be Saved? 0719

From Atlantic City to Key West - 21 Beach Towns Will Soon Be under Water 0719

Sea Level Rise Could Cost Florida $76 Billion, US $400 Billion by 2040 - 0719

Are Waterfront Hotels Ready for Climate Change? 0519

Louisiana Coastal Residents Agree They Face ‘Existential’ Crisis 0519

Virginia Beach Wants to Require Developers to Factor in Sea Level Rise for New Projects 0519

Oceans Could Rise over 6 Feet by 2100 as Polar Ice Melts, Swamping NYC, etc. 0519
     It could inundate 700,000 square miles and displace 187 million people or more.

Climate Change Is Already Battering This West African City 0419

California Sea Level Rise Could Exceed Worst Wildfire & Earthquake Destruction 0319

Coastal Flooding Is Erasing Billions in Property Value as Sea Level Rises 0219 - over $16 billion in US since 2005

Sea Level Rise Could Cost Virginia Beach Billions of Dollars 0119

Rising Waters Are Drowning Amtrak's Northeast Corridor 1218 - bad by 2050 with 2 foot sea level rise

Rising Seas Will Swamp UK Homes, Report Says 1018

Once Iraq's Venice, Basra's Waters Have Now Turned Deadly 0918 - salinization, garbage, toxins

Sea Level Rise Is Eroding Home Value, and Owners Might Not Even Know It 0818

Cost of Coastal Flooding in Europe Could Reach $1 Trillion Annually by 2100 - 0818

Rising Seas Could Knock Out the Internet - Sooner than Scientists Thought 0818

Rising Ocean Waters from Global Warming Could Cost $ Trillions 0718

Coral Reefs ‘Will Be Overwhelmed by Rising Oceans’ 0618 - Corals cannot build a reef higher as fast as seas will rise.

Southern California's Coastal Communities Could Lose 130 Feet of Cliffs by 2100 - 0618

Flooding from Sea Level Rise Threatens over 300,000 US Coastal Homes 0618

‘Clear-Sky’ Flooding Worsens across U.S. as Sea Levels Rise 0618

Everglades Threatened as Florida's Mangroves Face Death by Rising Sea Level 0518

Sunny Day Flooding Worsens at NC Beaches - Sea Rise Is Decades Too Soon 0518
20 N.C. communities could be submerged by sea water in the next 15 years, 28% of Cape Hatteras by 2060, etc.

The Military Paid for a Study on Sea Level Rise.  The Results Were Scary. 0418
     Half is about effect on US military bases, especially Pacific Islands, but also Atlantic Coast bases.

Homes near Ocean Risk Losing Value, Even in a Hot Market 0418 - Boston area

Seas Are Rising Too Fast to Save Much of the Mississippi River Delta 0418

High-Tide Flooding Could Happen ‘Every Other Day’ by Late This Century 0318

Powerful Winter Storm Shows Damage High Tides with Sea Level Rise Can Do 0318

New US Report Predicts Rising Tides, More Flooding 0318

Sea Level Rise Damaging More U.S. Bases, Former Top Military Brass Warn 0218

Why the Impact of Climate Change on Karachi Is a Big Threat for Pakistan 0218

How Climate Change Is Triggering a Migrant Crisis in Vietnam 0118

“Boats Pass over Where Our Land Was'- Bangladesh's Climate Refugees 0118

Sea Level Rise Could Displace 20,000 in Hawaii by 2100 - 0118

"Climate Gentrification" Could Add Value to Elevation in Real Estate 1217

This Is What Happens when the Hurricane Hits Miami in 2037 - 1217

A Poison in Our Island 1117 - Radioactive legacy of US H-bomb tests on Enetewak Atoll will be swallowed by rising seas.

From Miami to Shanghai - 3°C Warming to Leave World Cities below Sea Level 1117

Rising Seas Are Flooding Virginia’s Naval Base.  Can It Be Fixed? 1017

New York City’s Fate Is Closely Tied to Antarctic Ice, Scientists Warn 1017

Waiting for the Tide to Turn - Kiribati's Fight for Survival 1017

Flooding in Miami Is No Longer News, but It’s Certainly Newsworthy 0817

U.S. Communities Will Face Chronic Flooding as Sea Levels Rise 0717

Sea Level Rise Is Accelerating in Florida, Scientists Warn 0717 - up to more than 3 inches per decade already

The Drowning Villages of Indonesia 0717

Rapid Sinking of Louisiana’s Coast Already Counts as a ‘Worst Case Scenario’ 0617

U.S. Vulnerable to Worst of Extreme Sea Rise 0417

Nightmare Scenario for Florida’s Coastal Homeowners 0417 - When masts of small boats cannot fit under bridges, values of affected properties start to drop.  Spiral to sell before prices plunge further.

Sea Level Rise Could Send U.S. ‘Climate Migrants' Fleeing to Austin, Atlanta 0417

Unless Emissions Drop, Much of Coastal Louisiana Will Be Swamped 0417

Modest Sea-Level Rise in California Could Be Catastrophic 0417

Rising Waters Threaten China’s Rising Cities 0417

Coastal Cities Could Flood 3 Times a Week by 2045 - 0217

Louisiana Won’t Let Trump Downplay Global Warming 0117

Final Obama Climate Reports Projects Seas to Rise 1 to 8 Feet by 2100 - 0117 - consequences for various cities

Flooding in Denmark Becoming the Norm 0117

Sea Level Rise May Severely Impact Tampa by 2040 - 1216

Major Flooding in UK Now Likely Every Year, Warns Lead Climate Adviser 1216

Everglades' Water at Risk from Sea-Level Rise 1216

Miami's Causeways Highly Vulnerable to Sea-Level Rise 1216

Perils of Climate Change Could Swamp Coastal Real Estate 1116

What Worries Scientists So Much about Sea-Level Rise after 2050 - 1116

These Are the Cities Most at Risk from Sea Level Rise 1116

Will Climate Change Sink the Mekong Delta? 1016

Sea Level Rise in Coastal Bangladesh 0916

As Sea Levels Rise, Nearly 1.9 Million U.S. Homes Could Be Underwater by 2100 - 0816

Louisiana’s Sinking Coast Is a $100 Billion Nightmare for Big Oil 0816

Rising Seas Threaten to Swamp U.S. Military Bases by 2050 - 0716

Pacific Atolls ‘Could Be Underwater by 2050’ - 0716

Rising Seas Push Too Much Salt Into The Florida Everglades 0516

Climate Change Blamed after Pacific Swallows Villages, 5 Solomon Islands 0516

Abrupt Sea Level Rise Looms as Increasingly Realistic Threat 0516

NASA Is Facing a Climate Change Countdown 0416

James Hansen Warns of Much Worse than Expected Sea Level Rise 0316

We Had All Better Hope These Scientists Are Wrong about Earth’s Future 0316

Pakistan’s Biggest Threat Isn’t Terrorism, It’s Climate Change 0316 - Salt water creeps into Karachi, with 45% of GNP.

Preparing for the Inevitable Sea-Level Rise 0216

As Sea Levels Rise, Economic Damage Piles Up Even Faster 0216

Australia's Military Sees Rising Challenges from Climate Change 0216

Louisiana Tribe Officially Becomes America's First Climate Refugees 0216

Effects of Climate Change in Bangladesh 0116

Barrier Islands Could Be Unlivable in 50 Years 0116

China’s Sea Change 1215

Climate Refugees and a Collapsing City 1115

India’s Rising Tides and Temperatures 1115

West Antarctic Ice Melt Could Raise Seas by 3 Meters 1115

New York Prepares for Up to 6 Feet of Sea Level Rise 1115

Miami, New Orleans Will Inevitably Be Submerged 1015

Rising Salinity Threatens Bangladesh's Coastal Communities 1015

American Cities Most Threatened by Rising Sea Levels 1015

Sea Level Rise Increasing Major Storms off New Jersey 0915

Atlantic Ocean Excited To Move Into Beautiful Beachfront Mansion Soon 0915 - West Palm Beach

Worst-Case Scenario for Sea Level Rise - No More New York, Berlin or Shanghai 0915

Study Predicts All Antarctic Ice to Melt if All Fossil Fuels Are Burned 0915

Rising Sea Level Threatens Coastal Restoration, New Orleans Levees 0815

Greenland Melt Prompts NASA Fears of Coastal Flooding 0815

Vietnam Ready to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions 0815

Is New Orleans Safe? 0815

From the Mississippi to the Ganges, River Deltas Are in Major Trouble 0815

Salt Water Increasingly Attacks Vietnam’s Mekong Delta 0715

Sandy Caused Record Sea Levels, $23 Billion Damages in New York State 0715

Rising Seas, Storm Surge, Rain Raise Severe Flooding Risk in Biggest US Cities 0715

Come Hell or High Water - the Disaster Scenario that Is South Florida 0715

Sea Levels Could Rise At Least 20 Feet 0715 - another take on study by Jim Hansen, Eric Rignot, et al.

Billions of Dollars of Pacific Infrastructure at Risk from Climate Change 0715

North Carolina’s Outer Banks Could Lose $2 Billion to Rising Seas 0615

Why Miami is the ‘New Atlantis’ 0615

Seacoast Vacation Homes Hit by $250 insurance Surcharge 0515

Sea-Level Rise Accelerating, as Earth's Ice Sheets Melt  0515

Sea Rise Threatens Florida Coast, But There’s No Statewide Plan 0515

Fading Shores - Reality of Climate Change 0515

Obama’s Trip to Florida Everglades Is a Shrewd Move in Climate Debate 0415

Venice's Sink or Swim Moment 0415

California Facing Extreme Heat Waves and Rising Seas 0415

Miami Beach 'Rising' to Challenge of Encroaching Seas 0415

Rising Oceans Could Displace Millions of Americans by 2100 - 0315

These Florida Republicans Are Busy Protecting Their Coasts from Sea Level Rise 0315

Rise in Government Insurance Rates to Mirror Rising Waters, Flood Debt 0315

1 in 6 UK Homes at Risk from Flooding 0315

UK's Coastal Railways Vulnerable to Climate Threat 0315

Antarctica's Retreating Ice May Re-Shape Earth 0215

Millions at Risk From Rapid Sea Rise in India/Bangladesh Swampy Sundarbans 0215

Rising Sea Levels and Temperatures Ahead for NYC 0215

The Pentagon & Climate Change - How Deniers Put National Security at Risk 0215

Rising Seas Affecting Kennedy Space Center 0215

Pakistan's Coastal Villagers Retreat as Seas Gobble Land 0115

US Coastal Cities Face Daily Flooding by Mid-Century – NOAA 0115

Almost 7,000 UK Properties to Be Sacrificed to Rising Seas 1214

US Damages Through 2100 Can Top $1.1 Trillion from Rising Seas, Storm Surge 1214

Warming World's Rising Seas Wash Away Some of South Florida's Glitz 1214

Major Deltas ‘Could Be Drowned’ 1214

Huge, Hidden Cost of Protecting Homeowners from the Rising Sea 1114

Capping Warming at 2°C Not Enough to Avert Disaster, Experts Warn 1114

Amid Rising Water, Sinking Land, Southern Louisiana Folks Sit Tight 1014

Sea Level Rise Making Floods Routine for Coastal Cities 1014

Coastal Paradise Confronts Its Watery Future 0914

$226 Billion in Predicted Australian Damage from Rising Seas by 2100 - 0914

Climate Change Concerns Weigh on Cape Cod Home-Buying Decisions 0914

South Australians May Have to Carry Cost of Losing Homes to Rising Seas 0414

Storm Surge Could Flood NYC 1 in Every 4 Years 0414

Indonesia Risks Losing Up to 1,500 Islands by 2050 - 0214

Rising Seas Threaten Cape Cod's Groundwater 0214

Caribbean Climate In Crisis 0214

New Jersey Shore Likely Faces Unprecedented Flooding by 2050 - 1213

Climate-Threatened Solomon Islanders Prepare for Evacuation 1113

Drowning Kiribati 1113

Rising Sea Levels, Falling Florida Real Estate Values 1113

Coast Protection Costs Rise with Sea Levels 1113

Underwater Destiny for Many N.J. Towns? 1113

Tanzania’s Coastal Communities Forced to Drink Seawater 1013

Higher Sea Levels Mean More Flood Damage from Storms Like Isabel 0913

Virginia Mayors - Time to Respond to Climate Change 0913

As Pacific Islands Flood, a Climate-Driven Exodus to US Grows 0913

Pacific islands Fighting for Survival, as Sea Levels Rise 0913

Post-Katrina, Black Families Still More Vulnerable to Extreme Weather 0813

Most of Manila Under Water, as Record Storms Sweep Parts of Asia 0813

Greenwich CT Stilt Houses Foreshadow Impact of New FEMA Maps 0813

World's Coastal Cities Face $1 Trillion Flood Losses a Year by 2050 0813

Rising Seas - Holland to New Holland to Miami 0813

Timing a Rise in Sea Level 0813

Sacramento Areas Will Be Covered by Rising Seas 0813

Sea Level Rise to Play Bigger Role in NYC Storms 0813

Sea Level Rise Locking In Quickly, Cities Threatened 0713

Simultaneous Disasters Batter Pacific Islands 0713

Sea Level to Rise 2.3 or 3.9 Meters per °C Warming - Levermann 0613 - PDF
     CAVEAT: Paleoclimate studies indicate 4-24 meters sea level rise long-term per 1°C.  This indicates that Antarctic melting has been much more sensitive to temperature than models suggest.  In the past 2 million years, that’s because there was more ice to melt.
     See, for example, "
Climate Sensitivity, Sea Level & Atmospheric CO2“ - Hansen 0913 on Overviews page for sea level and Deep Ocean Temperatures (3rd graph on Home page, also on Overviews page & 2nd graph on Heat page).  For a 2nd example, see Tripati (2009) on Heat page: 3-6°C warmer and seas 25-40 meters higher (7-8 meters per °C) - for essentially today's CO2 levels.  For a 3rd example, connect 120-meter sea level rise since the last galcial maximum (see graph above) to warming since then from Vostok ice core data, which show 8-10°C warming over that time span (at the polar surface, but ~ 3 to 5°C warming for the deep ocean. (This comes from Hansen's book chapter in Springer, 2012, which has part 3 of 3-part graph (part 1 is on Home page and parts 1-2 on Overviews page)).

                         On left, thru 2,000 years.                               On right, includes much longer time span.

A is for sea water expansion.  B is for mountain (non-polar) glaciers.  C is for Greenland.  D is for Antarctica.  E is for Total.  Note that paleoclimate studies (indirect observations) have found much higher sea level rise per °C warming than Levermann's models do.  The difference stems from Antarctica.

     Also, like Levermann's, much published research leaves unclear if warming is surface or the entire ocean.  Stated differently, they assume than air at the land and sea surface warms as fast as the water in the ocean.  Since 1960, land and sea surfaces have warmed 25 (recently) to 50 times (not as recently) as fast the whole ocean.

Goodbye, Miami - McKibben 0613 - a long and detailed look at Miami, as it slowly vanishes beneath the waves over the next century or so, as published in Rolling Stone

6 of the World's Most Extensive Climate Adaptation Plans 0613

4 Ways US Government Subsidizes Risky Coastal Rebuilding 0613

Cities of the World Plan Adaptation to Climate Change 0613

Airports in US Face Increasing Threat From Rising Seas 0613

Virginia's Norfolk Area Seeks Ways to Cope with Sea Level Rise 0613

Flood Risk Areas in US Could Increase by 45% by 2100, Due to Climate Change 0613

Will New York's Sea-Level Plan Play in Miami? 0613

New York Is a City More at Risk, Say New Climate Data 0613

Aussies in Just One County Fear Sea-Level Policy May Slash $1 Billion Off Their Property Values 0513 

Climate Change Drowning the ‘Venice of Africa’ 0513

Sea Level Rise: Maps +

Worst-Case Scenario for Sea Level Rise - No More New York, Berlin or Shanghai 0915

The Changing Carolina Coast - Managing the Threat of Rising Water 0615

What Sea Level Rise Looks Like for 24 US Cities 0413 - 96 interactive inundation maps are on the web here.  Here are excerpts: Miami, New York, Norfolk, & Sacramento (also on Water page).

 Excerpts:      0 Feet                                +5 Feet                                     +12 Feet                                  +25 Feet             

How Sea-Level Rise Could Cause Havoc in South Florida 0313

Miami Among Most at Risk for Sea Level Rise 0213

Louisiana Coast Facing Grim Reality 0213

Palm Beach Must Act on Rising Sea Levels 0213        Maps below are from elsewhere.

New Study Maps Regional Sea Level Rise Variation 0213

Boston Prepares for Sea Level Rise 0213           Map below is from elsewhere.

Delaware Faces Sea Level Rise 0213

New Map Pinpoints Cities to Avoid as Sea Levels Rise 0213

FEMA's New NYC Flood Risk Maps Omit Sea Level Rise 0213

Report Underscores Vulnerable US Coastlines Underscored 0113

Gulf of Mexico Swallowing Galveston, Texas Faster than Thought 0113

Jakarta Sinking into Ocean as Water Supplies Dry Up 1212

Mega-Cities Face Future of Major Storm and Flood Risks as Seas Rise 1212

3-Foot Sea Level Rise Means $31 Billion Damage Near Palm Beach 1212

Asia Mega-Cities Most Vulnerable to Floods from Warming 1012

East Coast of US to Be Early Casualty of Rising Seas 0812

Rising Sea Levels Threaten Unprepared Coastal US Cities 0312

US Atlantic Sea Levels Rising Fastest in 2,000+ Years 0611

Stern's Bad News from Copenhagen 0309

Floods from Rain, etc.

Africa’s Unreported Extreme Weather in 2022 and Climate Change 1022

West Africa Floods Destroy Crops, Worsening Hunger Fears 1022

‘We Have No Dry Land Left’ - Impact of Pakistan Floods to Be Felt for Years 1022

Fleeing Floodwaters Is Now a Way of Life on Banks of New Delhi's Yamuna River 1022

After the Storm, the Mold - Warming Is Worsening Another Costly Disaster 1022

As Flood Waters Recede in Pakistan, 2nd Wave of Disaster Strikes 0922

Nigeria Battles Worst Floods in Years; 300 Killed in 2022 - 0922

‘No One Is Caring for Us’ - Pakistanis Struggle for Survival after Floods 0922

China's Drought-Hit Areas Get Rain, Bringing Flood Risks 0822

Deadly Floods Are Wreaking Global Havoc 0822

Pakistan Declares Floods a ‘Climate Catastrophe’ as Death Toll Tops 1,000 - 0822

Climate Change Could Push Flood Damage to $3 Billion a Year in Western U.S. 0822

Dozens Killed in Monsoon Flash Floods in Northern India 0822 - in Himalayas northwest of Nepal

Dallas Area Hit by 1-in-1,000-Year Flood 0822

Record Death Valley Flooding Was ‘a Once-in-1,000-Year Event’ 0822

Climate Crisis Is Fueling the Barrage in America’s Summer of Floods 0822

Seoul Sees “2 Months” of Rain in Half a Day, Killing at Least 8 - 0822

Flash Floods Kill 550 in Pakistan, in Heaviest Rains in Decades 0822

After Unprecedented Heat Waves, Monsoon Rains and the Worst Floods in Over a Century Devastate South Asia 0822

Flash Floods Swamp St. Louis Area, Breaking a Century-Old Rain Record 0722

China Hit by Floods and Heat Waves, in Climate Double Whammy 0622

Climate Change Is a Factor in 'Unprecedented' South Asia Floods 0622

All Yellowstone National Park Entrances Closed by Unprecedented Flooding 0622

Millions Displaced and Dozens Dead in Flooding in India and Bangladesh 0522

As Record-Setting Heat Blasts Pakistan, a Glacial Lake Floods a Village 0522

Death Toll in South Africa Floods Passes 306 - 0422

Extreme Rainfall Hits New Zealand and Brazil 0322

Climate Change Threatens Nearly 1/3 of U.S. Hazardous Chemical Facilities 0322

Climate Change Brings Extreme, Early Impact to South America 0322

Cities Submerged, at Least 10 Dead in ‘Unprecedented’ Australian Floods 0322

Climate Change Turns Brazil’s Favelas into Mudslide Disasters Waiting to Happen 0222

The Engineers Battling to Stop Global Warming Ruining Roads 0222

U.S. Flooding Losses Will Spike 26% by 2050 due to Climate Change 0122

South Africa’s Heaviest Rain on Record Causes Destructive Floods 0122

Brazil’s Extreme Weather Is Flooding Mines, Drying Up Crops 0122

German Floods Cost a Record $40 Billion, Munich Re Estimates 0122

Domino Flood Effect in Kenya 1221

U.S. Businesses Could Face $13.5 Billion from Flood Damage Next Year 1221 - rain and sea level rise

Pacific Storm Whips Hawaii with Rain and Snow, Causing Floods 1221

Farm Animals Died by the 100s of 1,000s in British Columbia Floods 1221

Trapped by Rising Water in South Sudan 1221

Climate Change Could Leave Millions of Miles of US Roads Inoperable in 30 Years 1121

Record Rainfall Prompts Evacuations in B.C. and US Northwest 1121

Dozens Drown in India and Nepal as Monsoon Season Fails to End 1021

Flood-Threat Assessment Finds Danger Goes Far beyond U.S. Homes 1021

Raging Flood Waters Driven by Climate Change Threaten Trans-Alaska Pipeline 1021

4 Dead in Alabama after Flash Flood Emergency in Birmingham & 1 Foot of Rain 1021

Climate Change’s ‘Fingerprint’ Seen in Ida Flooding 0921

Why New York’s Subway Keeps Flooding 0921 - They are designed tgo flood with heaviest rains.  On a typical dry day, 13 million gallons of water are pumped out of the subways.

New York City Region's Historic Floods Send Deadly Climate Change Lesson 0921 - 3.15 inches of rain in 1 hour in Central Park and 3.24 inches at Newark airport.  8.41 inches in 24 hours at Newark.

Ida Leaves Toxic Chemicals, Sewage Swirling in Its Wake 0921 - Louisiana mostly

Climate Change Made Heavy Rains in Europe, for German Floods, More Likely 0821

Tennessee Floods Show Pressing Climate Danger across USA - Walls of Water 0821

Floods Make 1,000s Homeless in Bangladesh Rohingya Camps 0721

8 Inches in 1 Hour - How a Deadly Downpour Flooded Zhengzhou, China 0721 - 24 inches in 24 hours

Chinese City Hit by Deadly Floods Had Heat Waves Days Before 0721

Death Toll Rises and 1,000s Flee Homes as Floods Hit China 0721 - dead in car tunnels and subway cars

100s Missing in Europe Floods Are Safe, Even as Death Toll Rises 0721

Climate Scientists Shocked by Scale of Floods in Germany 0721

Flooding from Torrential Rains Kills at Least 67 in Germany and Belgium 0721

Michigan Flooding - 50 Drivers Rescued and 350 Vehicles Damaged 0621

Risk of Flooding from Melted Glaciers to Increase as Climate Warms 0521

Australia’s Worst Floods in Decades Quicken Concerns about Climate Change 0321

Hawaii’s Rains, Floods Cited as Examples of Climate Change 0321

Climate Change Increases Flood Risk for Some 230,000 Ohio Valley Homes 0221

Cost of Flood Damage to U.S. Homes Will Increase by 61% in 30 Years 0221

Climate Threats Could Mean Big Jumps in Flood Insurance Costs This Year 0221

Indonesia Boosts Steps to Curb Climate Risks as Floods Hit Growth 0121

Climate Change Blamed for 1/3 of U.S. Flood Losses in Past 3 Decades 0121

A Water Crisis - How Climate Change Affects Our Health 1220

Climate Crisis to Triple Flooding Threat for Low-Income US Homes by 2050 - 1220

‘Within Seconds, Everything Was Gone’ - Devastating Floods Submerge the Philippines 1120

In a Year of Unrelenting Floods, Yet Another Storm Hits Central Vietnam 1120

Climate Change Blamed for Fall’s Super Floods in South Florida 1120

Alaska's New Climate Threat - Tsunamis Linked to Melting Permafrost 1020 - thaw loosens soil binding rocks, for big landslides into the fjords, making huge local tsunamis

China’s Summer of Floods is a Preview of Climate Disasters to Come 0820

1/4 of Bangladesh Is Flooded.  Millions Have Lost Everything.  It’s Not Alone. 0720

China Braces for New Floods as Yangtze Water Level Hits Record 0720

U.S. Flood Risks Dwarf Federal Estimates 0620

Climate Change Raises Risk of Dam Failures 0520

Flash Floods in Indonesia Leave 100s of 1,000s Homeless 0120

Floods Predicted to Uproot 50 Million People a Year as Climate Heats Up 1219

3rd Round of Flooding in 2019 Likely along Missouri River 0919

100-Year Floods Could Soon Happen Annually in Parts of U.S. 0819

Flooding Kills Dozens in Nepal as Waters Rise Across Asia 0719

Deadly Flooding Is Rocking Texas.  This Is Our Future under Climate Change. 0519

Wettest 12 Months in US Record Left It Drought-Free.  But Flooding Is Rampant 0519

Intense Rainfall Is as Damaging to Crops as Heatwaves and Drought. Climate Change Is Making It Worse. 0519

Canada’s Extreme Floods Show Climate Threat as Experts Warn of Further Tumult 0419

The Midwest Floods Are Going to Get Much, Much Worse 0319

Floods Show National Security Threat Posed by Climate Change 0319

Record Floods Could “Test the Limits” of Midwest Defenses 0319

Extreme Rainfall in Australia Forces Evacuations, Could Flood 20,000 Homes 0219

3/4 of Venice Flooded by Exceptional High Tide 1018

'Catastrophic' Floods Rising on Amazon River 0918

India's Devastating Rains Match Climate Change Forecasts 0818

Japan’s Death Toll from Record Rain Rises as PM Warns of 'Race against Time’ 0718

Immense Rains Are Causing More Flash Flooding, and It’s Getting Worse 0618

America’s Flooded Future 0518 - Ellicott City’s 2nd once-a-millennium flood in 2 years, 3 days before article, for starters

Floods Are Getting Worse, and 2,500 Chemical Sites Lie in Their Path 0218

This Is What Happens when the Hurricane Hits Miami in 2037 - 1217

Climate Change Made Hurricane Harvey's Rainfall Worse, Study Finds 1217

Floods, Droughts, and India's Uncertain Climate Future 1117

Climate Change Could Dampen Argentina’s Recovery 0917

Damage to Its Coral Reefs Has Made Florida More Vulnerable to Storm Surges 0917

Florida’s Beaches Await Irma’s Erosion Wrath 0917

Harvey Could Reshape How and Where Americans Build Homes 0817

Floods in India, Bangladesh and Nepal Kill 1,200, Leaving Millions Homeless 0817

How Climate Change Could Turn US Real Estate Prices Upside Down 0817

Harvey’s Toll on Energy Industry Shows a Texas Vulnerability 0817

Houston's Flood Is a Design Problem 0817

North Carolina Coast Faces Chronic Flooding 0817

Harvey’s Incredible Rains in Southeast Texas; Flood Emergency in Houston 0817

A Texas Newsroom Predicted a Disaster.  Now It’s Close to Coming True. 0817

Rivers Are Flooding Earlier in Parts of Europe, as Climate Changes 0817

Peru’s Flood of Problems 0817

Floods, Reef Loss and Migration - Asia's Future on a Hotter Planet 0717

Swathes of South China under Water, Heat Strikes North 0717

Houston Fears Catastrophic Flooding from Climate Change - 'It's Not If, It's When.’ 0617

Rare US Floods to Become the Norm if Emissions Aren't Cut 0617

Land Use and Climate Change Could Increase B.C. Flood Frequency 0517

Millions of Colombians at Risk from Climate Change 0417 - floods & mudslides from denuded slopes

Rising Waters Threaten China’s Rising Cities 0417

Zimbabwe Hit by Deadly Floods after Drought 0317

Chile Floods - Millions without Water in Capital Santiago 0217

San Jose, California Hit by Worst Floods in a Century 0217

California Levee System Battered by Record Rainfall from 'Atmospheric River' 0217

Coastal Cities Could Flood 3 Times a Week by 2045 - 0217

In Peru, Droughts Give Way to Floods as Climate Change Looms 0217

Flood Disasters More than Double across Europe in 35 Years 0117

Flooding in Denmark Becoming the Norm 0117

U.S. Had More Floods in 2016 than Any Year on Record 0117

Cruel Summer - Floods, Fires and Heat 0816 - record rain in Louisiana, plus sinking land & rising sea

Louisiana Flood of 2016 Resulted from '1,000-Year' Rain in 2 Days 0816

India Climate - What Do Drowning Rhinos and Drought Tell Us? 0816

China's $22 Billion Flood Is 5th Costliest Non-U.S. Weather Disaster Ever 0716

Climate Change Makes Flood More Likely, More Damaging 0716

Climate Change Plagues Madagascar's Poor- 'The Water Rose So Fast' 0716

West Virginia Calls for Federal Aid, as Flooding Kills at Least 26 - 0616

Flooding Costs Will Soar in a Warming World, Economic Analysts Say 0616

Without Global Warming, Paris Floods Would Have Been Far Less Likely 0616

Flooding In Europe.  Texas Suffers 500-Year Flood for 2nd Year in a Row. 0616

Climate Change, Runaway Development Worsen Houston Floods 0516

Over 1 Billion People Could Be at Risk of Coastal Flooding by 2060 - 0516

57 Tube Stations at High Risk of Flooding, Says London Underground Report 0416

Argentina Declares Flood Emergency in 6 Key Farm Provinces 0216

Climate Change Boosted ‘Once-a-Century’ Floods 0216

Effects of Climate Change in Bangladesh 0116

Ocean Warming is Making Floods Worse 0116

Hunger Threatens Millions, as El Niño Causes Drought and Floods 1215

Tracking the Massive Floods Affecting the Midwest 0116

Fire, Floods, Tornadoes - Fatal Weather Rounds out a Year of Extremes in 2015 - 1215

Floods of Biblical Proportions Leave British Cities and Villages under Water 1215

Balkan Nations among Those Hit Hardest by Climate Impacts in 2014 - 1215

Laos Counts Climate Change Costs - Record Floods, Drought and Landslides 1115

Beyond What Exxon Knew, Refineries Face Flooding Dangers 1115

More than 100,000 Flee Floods in Japan, after ‘Once-in-50-Years' Rain 0915

Severe Drought, Floods Destroy Crops in Papua New Guinea Highlands 0915

Deadly Floods Leave Trail of Destruction across Southern Asia 0815

Freak High Temperatures Trigger Ice Melt, Flooding, Mudslides in Tajikistan 0715

Rising Seas, Storm Surge, Rain Raise Severe Flooding Risk in Biggest US Cities 0715

Flooding May Spur Algae in Lake Erie 0715

Flooding Risk Rises with Global Warming 0615

Climate Change, a Factor in Texas Floods, Largely Ignored 0515

Rise in Government Insurance Rates to Mirror Rising Waters, Flood Debt 0315

Flash Floods in Chile’s Atacama Desert Kill 2 - 0315

1 in 6 UK Homes at Risk from Flooding 0315

UK's Coastal Railways Vulnerable to Climate Threat 0315

The Pentagon & Climate Change - How Deniers Put National Security at Risk 0215

Climate Change Could Bring More Disease, Crop Damage, Fires to Colorado 0215

Climate Change Pushes India's Poorest Children into Slavery 0215

With Climate Change, Himalayas' Future is Warmer, Not Necessarily Brighter 0115

Malaysian PM Najib Razak Cuts Short Holiday to Tour Devastated Flood Areas 1214

UK Drought and Flood Fears after Warm 2014 - 1114

Sea Level Rise Making Floods Routine for Coastal Cities 1014

Flooding Risk From Climate Change, Country by Country 0914

Flooding from Storm Surge Would Threaten D.C. Infrastructure 0914

Heavy Rain and Floods - the 'New Normal' with Climate Change? 0814

Record-Smashing 11-Inch Rainfall in 3 Hours Swamps Long Island 0814

Unprecedented Flooding Event in Detroit Fits Global Warming Pattern 0814

Canada’s Record Rains Cut Wheat Acreage to 3-Year Low 0714

Floods Affect Over 1 Million in Balkans, Destruction “Terrifying” 0514

Calamitous Climate Plays Part in Florida’s Record Rainfall 0514

Epic Rains Deluge Florida Panhandle & Parts of Alabama 0414

Storm Surge Could Flood NYC 1 in Every 4 Years 0414

UK Winter Wettest on Record - Met Office 0214

Steep Flood Insurance Rate Hikes Strike Rural Areas 1113

Industry Alarm Over Worsening Thai Floods 1013

Heaviest Rain in 52 Years Floods Streets and Homes in Shanghai 1013

Melting Permafrost Eroding Siberian Coasts 1013

8 Buried in Mexico Mudslide; Storm Death Toll Rises to 97 - 0913

Chaos as Floods Submerge Mexico's Acapulco, Death Toll Rises 0913

Nearly 1,900 Wells Shut Down as Floods Inundate Oil and Gas Fields 0913

Thousands Evacuate as Typhoon Lashes Japan 0913

Colorado’s ‘Biblical’ Flood in Line with Climate Trends 0913

Britain's Landslides Up 5-fold in a Year, Due to Heavy Rains 0913

Post-Katrina, Black Families Still More Vulnerable to Extreme Weather 0813

Ecologists Link Far East Floods to Global Warming 0813

Most of Manila Under Water, as Record Storms Sweep Parts of Asia 0813

What’s Making the Floods Worse in Manila? 0813

Russia Evacuates 19,000 from Flooded Far East 0813

Fires, Smoke, Floods Are Drawbacks of Alaska's Hot Summer 0813

World's Coastal Cities Face $1 Trillion Flood Losses a Year by 2050 0813

Monsoon Flooding Kills Scores across Afghanistan and Pakistan 0813

NW India Floods - More Than 5,700 People Presumed Dead 0713

Rainstorms Flood Sichuan Province in China 0713

Alberta Floods a Wake Up Call to Flooding Dangers 0613

India Floods - Rescue Efforts Intensify, as Death Toll Rises 0613

Indian Assam's Climate-Change Refugees Flee Rising Monsoon Flooding 0613

Drought, Flood Signal Iowa's Future 0613 - also available above

As Calgary Floods, Scientists Warn of Rising Risks 0613

2013 Floods Drown Europe, Germany 0613

Central Europe Floods Portend a Wet Future 0613

When Rain, Rain Won't Go Away 0413 - Northeast US

Climate Change, Poor Urban Planning Contributed to Deadly Argentine Floods 0413

Record Rain in Argentina Is Sign of Things to Come 0413

Thousands Cut Off as Australian Rivers Peak 0213

Flooding Ends Drought in Zimbabwe 0213

Jakarta Is Under Water 0113

Northeast Flood Risk Will Rise with Climate Change 1112

Asia Mega-Cities Most Vulnerable to Floods from Warming 1012

NYC Subways Crippled by Superstorm Floodwaters 1012

Thailand Floods Take Heavy Toll on Industrial Production 1011

Arctic Storm Moves Sea 20 Miles Inland - Climate Change 0511

Floods & Mudslides on 4 Continents 0810 - China, Pakistan, Niger, Chad, Brazil, Poland, Germany, etc.

Flood Covers 20% of Pakistan 0810

Worst Flood in Pakistan History 0710

A similar versionby Gene Fry 2022