Oil & Gas

General: Around the World

2019-2024 Articles

Methane Scientist Says LNG’s Emissions Are Worse than Coal’s 0224

U.S. Oil Production Surges to Record, amid Climate Change Efforts 1223

US Oil Production Hits All-Time High, in Blow to Cutting CO2 Emissions 1023

‘Beginning of the End’ of Fossil Fuel Era Approaching, Says IEA 0923

China Reaches Peak Gasoline in Milestone for Electric Vehicles 0823

Ecuadorians Reject Amazon Oil Drilling, Ending Operations in Protected Area 0823

Leaks Can Make Natural Gas as Bad for the Climate as Coal 0723

‘Mind-Boggling’ Methane Emissions from Turkmenistan Revealed 0523

How Europe Ditched Russian Fossil Fuels with Spectacular Speed 0223

Putin’s Energy Gambit Fizzles, as Warm Winter Saves Europe 0123

Britain’s Gas Prices Bring Heat Pump Adoption to New Places 1222

Fixing Oil & Gas Industry Methane Leaks, a Climate Game Changer, Pays for Itself 1122

Europe’s Energy Risks Go Beyond Gas 1122

A Parade of Tankers Has Eased Europe’s Energy Crisis 1122

Major Push for Gas amid Ukraine War Is Accelerating Climate Breakdown 1122

New Fossil Fuels ‘Incompatible’ with 1.5°C Goal 1022

Europe Plans 20 Floating Gas Terminals by Year-End, Raising Climate Fears 0822

Big Oil Sees Record Profits 0822

Shut Down Fossil Fuel Production Sites Early to Avoid Climate Chaos 0522

U.S. Climate Envoy John Kerry Puts Natural Gas on Notice 0422

Energy Transition Still Means Billions in Fossil-Fuel Investment 0422

New Sanctions Deal a Fatal Blow to Russia's Arctic LNG 0422

Methane Leaks in New Mexico Far Exceed Current Estimates 0322 - Emissions averaged 9.4% of gross gas production, vs 1.4% EPA estimate.  The breakeven leakage rate for natural gas is  3% (Howarth).  9.4% means natural gas is much worse for climate than coal.

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Europe Is on a Wartime Mission to Ditch Russian Oil and Gas 0322

Shell Quits Russia, Joining BP as Oil Giants Object to Attack on Ukraine 0222

E.U. to Unveil Strategy to Break Free from Russian Gas 0222

Germany Responds to Russia, by Halting Nord Stream 2 Pipeline 0222

Climate Fears on Back Burner, as Fuel Costs Soar and Russia Crisis Deepens 0222

How Europeans Are Responding to Exorbitant Gas and Power Bills 0222

How Spiking Energy Prices Complicate the Fight against Global Warming 0222

Biden Unveils Multi-pronged Assault on Planet-Warming Methane 1121

European Energy Prices Soar as a Deep Freeze Arrives 1221

Electric Passenger Vehicle Sales Are on a Tear.  How Long till Peak Oil? 1221

Half of World’s Fossil Fuel Assets Could Be Worthless by 2036 - 1121

Total (France) Sees Oil Demand Peaking Before 2030, in Power Switch 0921

Amid Troubles for Fossil Fuels, Has the Era of ‘Peak Oil’ Arrived? 0621

Shell, in a Turning Point, Says Its Oil Production Has Peaked 0221

Massive Losses Should Be a Warning to Big Oil that Its Bonanza Is Over 0221

Fossil-Fuel Use Could Peak in Just a Few Years.  Still, Major Challenges Loom. 1021

An Energy Crisis Grips the World, with Potentially Grave Consequences 1021

Europe’s Energy Crisis Is Coming for the Rest of the World, Too 0921

Gas Prices Skyrocket as the Global Energy Crisis Worsens 1021

Exxon Mobil Cuts Billions in Capital Spending, as Oil and Gas Prices Remain Low 1120

Texas Oil Firms Say Oil Demand Has Peaked - Dallas Fed 0920

Global Oil Demand May Have Passed Peak, Says BP Energy Report 0920

Saudi Aramco Says Profit Fell 73% as Demand for Oil Shrank 0820

Coronavirus Crisis Could Cause $25 Trillion Fossil Fuel Industry Collapse 0620

BP Writes Off Billions as Covid Redraws Rules of Oil Demand 0620

Big Oil Posts Big Losses during Coronavirus Crisis 0520

Transition to Low-Carbon Energy May Accelerate after Crisis - Shell 0420

Shell CEO Says Pandemic May Change the Oil Business Forever 0420

Renewables Are the Only Winners in Historic Decline in Energy Demand 0420

Oil Slump Spurs Talk of Ending EU Subsidies for Polluting Fuels 0420

For Big Oil, This Crisis Will Be Different, and It May Be Irreversible 0420

Just How Big Is the Biggest-Ever Slump in World Oil Demand? 0420

Oil Price Plunges Below Zero for 1st Time, in Unprecedented Wipeout 0420

Oil Companies Are Collapsing, but Wind and Solar Energy Keep Growing 0420

Italian Oil Giant Eni Sees Oil Peak Just 6 Years Away 0220

Flood of Oil Is Coming, Complicating Efforts to Fight Global Warming 1119 - Brazil, Canada, Norway, Guyana
Cheap Renewables Could Make 90% of Proposed Gas Power Plants - and Many Pipelines – Obsolete by 2035 - 0919

It’s Now Cheaper to Build New Renewables than to Build Natural Gas Plants 0919

Diesel Vehicles Face a Grim Future in Europe’s Cities 0819

The Inevitable Death of Natural Gas as a ‘Bridge Fuel’ 0219

New NASA Study Confirms Methane Spike Tied to Oil and Gas 0119

Tony Seba graphs

TaaS = Transport as a Service                  

20 moving parts in an EV, vs 2,000 in an internal combustion car 

   Oil demand drops as EVs replace internal combustion ones, with a big price drop for batteries, drives oil price way down.

Peak Oil Is Suddenly upon Us 1220 - lengthy analysis, consistent with the graphs above

2018 and earlier

Global Demand for Fossil Fuels Will Peak in 2023, Says Thinktank 0918

How Hydrogen Could Shake Up Canada's Energy Sector 0818

The Carbon Bubble - Here Come the New Dirty 30s - 0618

The Fossil Fuel Industry Is Weaker than Ever 0618

Untapped “Fossil” Methane Hydrates Could Save or Ruin Our Climate 0518

The Hidden Oil Market Problem - Use Far Exceeds Discoveries 0318

Shell’s Radical Scenario for What It Would Take to Halt Climate Change 0318

How Bill Gates Aims to Clean Up the Planet 0218 - create oil from carbon captured directly from the air

World Petrol Demand ‘Likely to Peak by 2030, as Electric Car Sales Rise' 1017

Are Electric Vehicles Pushing Oil Demand Over a Cliff? 1017

France Plans to End Oil and Gas Production by 2040 - 0917

Mexico’s Methane Emissions Threaten the Environment 0717

China Taps ‘Combustible Ice’ for Energy 0717

Exxon Says Scientists Boost Lipid Content from Algae in Lab Study 0617

Oil Producer Norway Bans Use of Heating Oil in Buildings 0617

This Is How the Demise of Oil Looks 0517 - EVs, etc.

China and India’s Plans for Electric Cars Threaten to Cut Gasoline Demand 0517

Converting Coal Would Help China's Smog at Climate's Expense 0417

Oil Price Will Soar without Investment in Capacity, Says IEA 0317

Electric Cars Will Not Stem Global Demand for Oil, Says BP 0117

Oil Prices Keep Surging, after OPEC Hashes Out Production Cut Deal 1216

Oil Discoveries at 70-Year Low Signal Supply Shortfall Ahead 0816

The Coal Industry Collapsed—Is Oil Next? 0716

US Now Has World’s Largest Oil Reserve, but Global Supply Still Small 0716

Coal and Gas to Stay Cheap.  But Renewables Still Win Race on Costs 0616

Self-Driving Cars May End Gasoline Era 0416

An Oilman’s $7 Billion Course in the Economics of Drilling and Climate Change 0316

Exxon Sees a World with Less Carbon, with Higher-Cost Emissions 0116

Slump in Oil Prices Drives Green Energy Takeup in Top Oil Exporting Nations 0116

UN Climate Chief Says Low Oil Prices Can Boost Renewables 0116 

Heat Waves, Drought May Curb Global Power Output 0116

As Hydropower Dries Up, Tanzania Moves toward Fossil Fuels 1215

China's Natural Gas Use Plummets despite Its Pledge to Switch from Coal 1215

US Thirst for Oil Straining International Water Supplies 1115

Oil, Coal Companies Risk Plague of Lawsuits, as Climate Change Tide Turns 1015

As Oil Industry Bleeds Jobs, Asia's Green Energy Drive Offers Bright Spot 1015

Study Suggests Fossil Fuel Demand Is Beginning a Nosedive 1015

Rise of Diesel in Europe - the Impact on Health and Pollution 0915

Billions in Gas Projects Stranded by Climate Change Action 0715

Why the Saudis Are Going Solar 0615

Is Gas a Weapon in the Fight against Climate Change? 0615

Big Oil's Plan to Become Big Gas 0615

Saudi Arabia, Built on Oil, Foresees Fossil Fuel Phase-out by 2040 or 2050 - 0515 - export solar GW

World’s Worst Air Spurs Modi’s $25 Billion Utility Clean-Up Push 0515 - diesel fumes, not just coal

Why Future Oil Demand Could Be Very Low 0415

Audi Just Invented Fuel Made From CO2 and Water 0415

Study Finds Low Cost to Reduce Methane Emissions 0415 

Carbon Reserves Held by Top Fossil Fuel Companies Soar 0415

Even at $10/Barrel, Oil Can’t Match Solar on Cost 0315

Big Oil’s Groundhog Day - Will It See Looming Shadows? 0215

Will Falling Oil Prices Undermine Green Energy? 0115

Climate Change Mitigation’s Best-Kept Secret - Methane 0115

Exxon Issues Energy Reality Check as UN Debates Emissions 1214

Low Oil Prices May Bode Ill For Climate 1214

Can Low Oil Prices be Good for the Environment? 1114

US Sees 38% Jump in Global Oil Use by 2040 - 0914

Former BP Geologist: Peak Oil Is Here and It Will 'Break Economies' 1213

Latin America's Oil Rush Means More Climate Change 1113

New “Flexible” Gas Power Plants Sway to Keep Up with Renewables 1013

China's Anti-Pollution Drive Risks Running Out of Gas 1013

Low Natural Gas Price to Hamper U.S. Energy Efficiency - IEA 1013

Data Show China Passing US as Biggest Oil Importer 1013

US Is Overtaking Russia as Top Oil-and-Gas Producer - IEA 1013

Gas Boom Has Its Own Climate Questions 0913

China’s Oil Imports Soon to Dwarf Those of US 0813

Climate Change Will Disrupt Energy Supplies, DOE Warns 0713

Pipeline or Rail - Western Canada's Oil Shipments Will Double by 2030 0713

‘Peak Fossil Fuels’ Is Closer Than You Think 0413

US to Top World Oil Production by 2020 1212

Switch from Coal to Gas Doesn't Delay Climate Disruptions 0911

Oil, World Balance 2004-10.xls

Winning the Oil Endgame 0509

Costs of Unconventional Oil, Coal 1008 

Japan Mines Methane Hydrates 1207 

Is World Oil Production Peaking? 1107 

Big Oil Says Save Oil 0707

Texas Leads Oil Import States 0707

Implications of Switch Coal to Gas - Hayhoe 0202 - PDF, 33 pp

General: US


Methane Scientist Says LNG’s Emissions Are Worse than Coal’s 0224

Biden’s Climate Law Fines Oil Companies for Methane Pollution, Bill Comes Due 0224

Biden Pauses Natural Gas Projects, amid Plans for Carbon ‘Mega -Bombs’ 0124

Heat Waves Ramp Up U.S. Burning of Natural Gas 0723

New (Gas) Pipeline Agency Rule Aimed at Cutting Methane Leaks 0523

Price to Plug Old Wells in Gulf of Mexico Is $30 Billion 0523

The Oil & Gas Industry Emits Way More Methane than the EPA Has Estimated 0423

Plugging Millions of Abandoned U.S. Oil & Gas Wells Is a Monumental Task 0423

Peak Gasoline Heralds Price Shocks for Drivers, Inflation Headaches 0123

Record Output Slump for Top US Gas Basin Worsened Power Chaos 1222

California Climate Plan Scraps New Gas Plants, Expands Fossil Fuel Carbon Capture 1122

California Votes to Ban New Gasoline Car Sales by 2035 - 0822

US Natural Gas Prices Spike to 14-Year High 0822 - Prices in Europe are far higher, more than 7 times America’s 14-year high: $70 per million Btu versus $9.22.

US Gasoline Prices Fall to 2-Month Low, Easing Pump Pain 0722

US Gasoline Tops $5 a Gallon on Average, in New Inflation Marker 0622

Plugging Old U.S. Oil and Gas Wells to Boost Green Jobs, Curb Emissions 0422

US Interior Department to Resume Oil and Gas Leasing, Charge Higher Fees 0422

War Scrambles U.S. Energy, from Oil to Nuclear 0322

Gulf of Mexico Offshore Oil Lease Plan Voided by U.S. Judge 0122

U.S. To See Wave of Coal Power Retirements, While Oil Output Ramps Up 0122

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Biden Announces Oil Release from Strategic Petroleum Reserve 1121 - Price of oil was over $80/barrel, as production did not keep up with economic recovery from covid and Europe had a cold winter.  Coal prices rose steeply too, as did CO2 permit prices in Europe.

US Auctions Off Gulf of Mexico Oil and Gas Drilling Leases after Climate Talks 1121 - by court order, over Biden administration objections

Oil, Gas Lead New Mexico’s Carbon Emissions, as Renewables Sector Grows 1120

Betting on Gas Is Definitely Immoral – and Probably Unwise 0720

Grim Day for Pipelines Shows They’re Almost Impossible to Build 0720

Texas Oil Industry Faces Prospect of Collapse amid Covid-19 Losses 0620

U.S. Oil Drilling Sinks to Record Low 0520

Big Oil Posts Big Losses during Coronavirus Crisis 0520

Is Gas Really Better than Coal for the Climate? 0520 - Leaks from production remain a big problem.  They make make gas worse for the environment than coal.  Most leaks are fixable, fairly easily.  Detection technology has improved a lot.  Emissions are some 2/3 greater than EPA reports.  See Limiting Methane Leaks Critical to Gas 0513 below.

Oil Companies Are Collapsing, but Wind and Solar Energy Keep Growing 0420

Utilities Have Big Plans to Cut Emissions, but Struggle to Shed Fossil Fuels 0120

Natural Gas Production Headed for a Slowdown in 2020 - 1219

U.S. Suspends More Oil & Gas Leases over What Could Be a Widespread Problem 1119

Booming LNG Industry Could Be as Bad for Climate as Coal 0719

As Coal Fades in the U.S., Natural Gas Becomes the Climate Battleground 0619

GE Gas Plant to Close 20 Years Early, Become Battery Storage Site 0619

New York to Phase Out Old Peaking Plants, as It Targets 100% Clean Energy 0319

America's Oil Boom Is Terrible for the Climate 0119

Clean Energy Is Catching Up to Natural Gas 0718

Fossil Fuels Account for Lowest % of U.S. Energy Use in over a Century 0718

PG&E to Replace 3 Gas Plants with World's Biggest Battery Projects 0718

Nearly 1/3 of Planned Gas Peakers at Risk from Energy Storage 0318

U.S. Oil Production Booms as New Year Begins 1217

US Will Become a Net Oil Exporter within 10 years, Says IEA 1117

Friendly Policies Keep US Oil and Coal Afloat Far More than We Thought 1017 - direct subsidies > $20 billion/ yr

Energy Rhetoric Irrelevant in World of $50 Oil 0817

Why Record U.S. Oil Exports Are Poised for Even More Growth 0717

Interactive Map Shows Why Renewables, Natural Gas Are Taking Over the US 0417 - map on Renewables page

Record Number of Oil, Gas Firms Go Bust, as Renewable Energy Revolution Bites 0117

Solar Could Outpace Natural Gas for New US Generation in 2016 - 1216

Huge Deposit of Untapped Oil Could Be Largest Ever Discovered in US 1116

Natural Gas’ CO2 Emissions in US Will Surpass Coal’s in 2016 – EIA 0816

US Now Has World’s Largest Oil Reserve, but Global Supply Still Small 0716

U.S. Oil Industry Bankruptcy Wave Nears Size of Telecom Bust 0516

Oil and Natural Gas Drilling Rigs Hit 70-Year Low 0316

Cheap Natural Gas Leads to More Petrochemical Plants and Pollution 0216

Cutting Pollution From U.S. Power Plants Is Cheaper than You Think 0116 - renewables & natural gas

Natural Gas Likely Overtook Coal as Top U.S. Power Source in 2015 - 0116

Warning - Oil Company Defaults Are Coming 1115

Why Natural Gas Is Catching Up to Coal in Powering U.S. Homes 1015

Study Gets a Handle on Gas Leaks - 80 Billion Cubic Feet 0715

Gas Overtakes Coal at US Power Stations 0715 - 31% vs 30% in April 2015

Wind-Gas Hybrid Power -- Wyoming's Idea of California Dreamin' 0215

Report Just Shot Down Key Argument Against Pres. Obama’s Climate Plans 0215 - adding pipeline capacity

Cheap Gasoline, Powerful Vehicles Make It Hard to Meet CAFE Standards 0115

Oil Price Slump Taking a Toll on U.S. Alternative Fuels 0115

Cutting California Oil Use by 50% Difficult but Doable, Experts Say 0115

With Gasoline $2.67 a Gallon, America Celebrates by Buying Gas Guzzlers 1214

Fuel to the Fire?  Fuel Exports Soar under Obama 1214

US Oil Exports Would Worsen Global Warming, GAO Auditors Say 1014

Oil Companies Quietly Prepare for a Future of Carbon Pricing 0914

TVA Turns to Gas to Replace Memphis Coal Plant 0814

Natural Gas Can Keep Those Motors Running 0814

Colorado Pitches New Rules to Cut Oil and Gas Industry Air Pollution 1113

Low Natural Gas Price to Hamper U.S. Energy Efficiency - IEA 1013

South’s New Power Push - Natural Gas and Tiny Nukes 1013

2 Kentucky Utilities Plan 2nd Natural Gas Power Plant, Solar Generator 1013

Environmental Oil & Gas Well Inspections Falling Short, GAO Says 0913

Keystone Will Soon Carry Crude through Texas Segment, with or without Obama 0913

Oil Industry Touts $81 Billion in Carbon-Cutting Efforts 0913

Exxon’s Arkansas Pipeline Rupture - Amount of Oil Spilled Is Still Guesswork 0813

Crude Mishaps on Trains Spike as Rail Carries More Oil 0713

Gas, Renewables to Power Texas Grid 0613

Military - US Has Misguided Fixation with Domestic Drilling 0613

US Oil and Gas Reserves Rise by 33% 0613

US Crude Oil Output Exceeds Imports for 1st Time in 16 Years 0613

Vast Supply of Frozen Methane Tapped in Alaska 1112

Fracking & Leakage

     Natural gas is mostly methane (CH4), the prized ingredient.  Some waste gases (CO2, H2S, etc.) are removed from natural gas sent into pipelines, while others (He, Ar, C2H6, C3H8 and C4H10 - helium, argon, ethane, propane and butane) are separated for resale.

     This Earth justice map shows US shale formations suitable for fracking, active and potential.  The Bakken formation is in Norh Dakota, Marcellus in Appalachia, Eagle Ford etc. in Texas, Utica+ in Michigan, Monterrey in California, Fayetteville in Arkansas, etc.
    Earthjustice identifies 35 "fraccidents" outside the Marcellus area and 41 inside it, including 38 in Pennsylvania.  They include poisoned drinking water, polluted air, mysterious animal deaths, industrial disasters, and explosions.

2014 Articles and earlier

Ohio Natural Gas Well Blowout Leaked More Methane than 25 of EU Nations in a Year 1219

New Methane Detection Technologies Can Slash Natural Gas Leaks 1019

Is U.S. Shale Facing an 'Unmitigated Disaster'? 0919

Fracking Is Causing Rise in Methane Emission 0819

U.S. Oil Companies Find Energy Independence Isn’t So Profitable 0619

North American Drilling Boom Threatens Big Blow to Climate Efforts 0419

Pennsylvania Superior Court Rules that Fracking Natural Gas from a Neighboring Property Is Trespassing 0418

Reversing Course, E.P.A. Says Fracking Can Contaminate Drinking Water 1216

Scientists May Have Solved Key Mystery about Earth’s Methane Emissions 0916

U.S. Oil Industry Bankruptcy Wave Nears Size of Telecom Bust 0516

Study Targets Methane Leaks Between Underground Wells 1015

Environmentalists, Energy Companies Lobby on Coming Methane Rule 1015

Replacing Old Gas Pipes Reduces Leaks 0915

North Texas Methane Emissions Underestimated 50% by EPA 0715

New York Formalizes Ban on Fracking, Ending 7-Year Review 0615

Which Oil and Gas Companies Are Leaking the Most Methane? 0615

Enough Natural Gas Is Leaking to Negate Climate Benefits 0615

Gas Utilities Reduce Methane Leaks 0315

Study Finds Relatively Low Methane Emissions from 3 Major US Gas Fields 0215Citing Health Risks, Cuomo Bans Fracking in New York State 1214

Fracking Risk Compared to Thalidomide and Asbestos in Walport Report 1114

Scientists Refute Lower Emissions Claim for Fracking 1014

China's Great Frack Forward 1014

Suddenly, Elusive U.S. Shale Oil Proves Certainty of Uncertainty 0514

EPA Drastically Underestimates Methane Released at Drilling Sites 0414

More Oil Spilled from Railcars in 2013 Than in Past 4 Decades Combined 0114

Fracking Companies Say Southern Wales Holds 6 x UK Annual Gas Use 1113

Water Shortages Could Dry Up Shale Gas Craze 1113

Fracking Boom Leading to Fracking Bust 1113

Shale-Gas Boom Will Make Us Richer, But Not Cooler 1013

Will Fracking Suck California Dry? 1013

Ohio Confirms 6 Water-Well Problems, But Only from VERTICAL Gas Wells Since 2010 - 1013

Europe Votes to Tighten Rules on Fracking 1013

North Dakota to Tighten Flaring Rules 0913

Frackers Guzzle Water as Texas Goes Thirsty 0913

California's Brown Signs Fracking Bill, Upsetting Both Sides 0913

Fracking May Not Be as Bad for the Climate as We Thought 0913

Oil Lobbyists Seek CEQA Exemption Ahead of Calif. Fracking Bill Vote 0913

EPA Orders Air Pollution Controls for Fracked Gas Wells 0813

Poland's Shale Drive Will Transform Europe, If It Persists 0813

Bakken Flaring Burns More Than $100 Million a Month 0713 

Former Mobil VP Warns of Fracking & Climate Change 0713  

New US Study Inflames South Africa's Fracking Debate 0613

Fracking Fuels Water Fights in US Dry Areas 0613

Gas Leaks Undermine Climate Benefit from Switch 0613

Bakken Shale - New, Higher Oil Estimates 0513

Can This Contraption Make Fracking Greener? 0313 

China Slow to Tap Shale-Gas Bonanza 0213

Shale Oil Output Anchors Record US Growth 0113

Methane Leakage Effects on Climate Change - Wigley 0811 - PDF

GHGs from Fracking for Gas - Howarth 0411 - PDF

     This multi-university study, sponsored in part by EDF and several gas companies, measured methane leakage rates at 190 sites.  These included 27 well completion flowback sites, where leakage ranged from 0.01 to 17 tonnes per completion (5 to 339 hours per completion).  These averaged 1.7 tonnes, a small fraction of EPA's estimate of 81 tonnes per completion.  To explain this, Allen found that operators captured 98% of potential emissions (including 99% where equipment for methane capture and control was used) rather than the 50% EPA assumed.

     The 190 sites also included 9 "unloadings," a periodic process to clear out liquids that clog wells.  The average leak per unloading was 1.1 tonnes, compared to EPA's estimate of 5.2.

     Routine continuous operations (150 wells) released 1.23 grams of methane per minute (about 1.2 tonnes per year for continuous operation) through various pneumatic controllers, roughly 14% less than EPA estimates.

     In all, methane leakage in the study sample is 20% less than estimates using EPA guidelines at the time.  The study attributes this reduced leakage rate to emerging regulatory requirements and improved operating practices.  The study summarizes the overall methane leakage rate as 0.42% of gross natural gas production (extraction), though some of that 0.42% could be attributed to the oil (and propane / NGL) production from the well, instead of all of it to natural gas.  In April 2013, EPA cut its estimate of methane release from natural gas production by about 20%, presumably relying on a pre-publication version fo the study.

     EPA's old and new estimates, as well as Allen's study results, are similar to natural gas leakage rates from transmission and distribution mains.  Error bars are appreciable for extraction, transmission, and distribution leakage rates.

     Caveats: The sample is chosen from the best-managed wells, where more money and resources are devoted to capturing emissions ("green completions"), compared to typical wells.  Leakage rates at old wells are probably (much) higher.  Also, if "unloadings" happen often, they can dominate emissions.

8% Gas Leak Rate, Gas Replaces Coal 9% / Year 

6% Gas Leak Rate, Gas Replaces Coal 6% / Year

4% Gas Leak Rate, Gas Replaces Coal 4% / Year

2% Gas Leak Rate, Gas Replaces Coal 5% / Year

Limiting Methane Leaks Critical to Gas 0513 - see sample of the interactive trade-off graphs, below.
    If leakage is too high, fracked natural gas is worse than coal for climate change, at least in the early decades.  If leakage is low, natural gas is much better than coal on climate change.  Allen's 0913 study, below, found only small leaks.
    The lower right leak rate graph (2%/5%) probably best describes the situation.  In fact, the GHG advantage of gas over coal can closely approach 50% even sooner than it shows, if gas production operations continue improving, cutting leaks, even at old wells.

Tar Sands, etc

Carbon Emissions Factor into Major Oil Sands Shakeup 0417 - Most oil majors sell off their holdings.

Carbon Footprint of Canada's Oil Sands Is Larger than Thought 0417

Shell Cuts Debt With $7.25 Billion Sale of Canada Oil Sands 0317

Exxon Wipes Oil Sands Reserves from Its Books 0217

Canada’s Vast Source of Climate Pollution May Go Bust 0117

Canada, Especially Alberta Oil, Pays Higher Climate Change Policy Price than US 0816

Canada's Energy Superpower Status Threatened, as World Shifts off Fossil Fuel 0516

Fort McMurray Wildfire Forces 1/4 of Canada’s Oil Output Off-Line 0516

Once Unstoppable, Tar Sands Now Battered from All Sides 0216

First Big Oil Sands CCS Project May Also Be One of the Last 1115

Transition Alberta off Oil Sands, Climate Thinkers Urge Trudeau 1115

Obama Rejects Keystone XL Pipeline 1115

Obama Will Decide on Keystone Pipeline during His Term 1115

Is Keystone Dead? 1115 Sponsor Transcanada asks pipeline decision be deferred.

Shell Halts Carmon Creek Oil Sands Project in Alberta, Canada 1015

Researchers’ Open Letter Calls for Moratorium on New Oil Sands Projects 0615

Vast Reserves of Shale Oil Estimated in Northwest Territories 0515

Suncor Cuts 1,000 Oil Sands Jobs, Takes $1 Billion Out of 2015 Budget 0115

With Low Oil, Gasoline Prices, Is Keystone Still Necessary? 0115

Canada’s Oil Sands Emissions Extremely Low, Incorrectly Says IEA Chief Economist 1114

Energy East is Canada's Alternative to Keystone XL.  It's in Trouble. 1114

Keystone Left Behind as Canadian Oil Pours into U.S. 1114

Public Opposition Has Cost Tar Sands Industry $17 Billion 1114

Incredible Shrinking Keystone Pipeline 1014

Keystone XL Pipeline Foes Claim Victory as Statoil Delays Oil Sands Plan 0914

Keystone XL Will Spike Oil Demand and CO2, Study Says 0814

Oil Sands Not a Major Source of Climate Change- IEA Economist 1113

Need for Keystone XL Plummets, as U.S. Oil Floods Gulf Coast Refining Hub 1113

Oil Sands Production Creates 'Challenge', as Its Emissions per Barrel Rise 1113

5 Canadians Say Oil Sands to US Will Help Tip World to Catastrophe 1013

Alberta's Carbon Strategy No Match for Keystone's Emissions 1013

Energy Hits New Rocks in Mongolia 1013

Pipelines Safer Than Trains and Trucks 1013

China's Push into Synthetic Natural Gas Has Pollution Consequences 1013

China Wants to Cut Down on Coal - That's Bad for Global Warming 0913

Keystone XL Pipeline - Sierra Club Analysis 0913 - PDF, 30 pp

Seeping Alberta Oil Sands Spill Covers 40 Hectares, Still Leaking 0813

Oil-Sands Industry Turns to Algae to Appease Obama 0813

With Tar Sands Development, Growing Concern on Water Use 0813

Canada Rail Crash Stirs Debate over Keystone XL Pipeline Delay 0713

Oil Sands Deals Lose Traction 0513

Keystone’s Tar Sands Waste Warms More Than Coal 0113 

Section Map: Fossil Fuels & Nuclear Energy