Sea Level Rise

     For detailed amounts of sea level rise - past, present and future - see the page Water:Oceans, Past and Future Sea Level sections

From U.S. National Climate Assessment (2013).

From State of the Climate in 2021 - World Meteorological Organization, 1021.

Note that sea level rise rate doubled (up 110%) over 20 years and accelereated a bit, up 51% in the past 10 years (20-year rate of 126%).

Where Seas Are Rising at Alarming Speed in US 0424 - 12 tide gauges spanning Texas to North Carolina, sea levels are at least 6 inches higher than they were in 2010.

Our Underwater Future - How Sea Level Rise Will Look around the Globe 1021

London’s Tube Could Turn Unbearably Hot, Stations Flooded by Climate Change 0921

EU-Backed Study Shows Alarming State of Oceans 0921 - accelerating sea level rise is one facet

Sea-Level Rise Becoming Hazard for South Florida Neighborhoods Far Inland 0921

The Race to Save London’s Underground from Flooding 0821

Rising Seas Pose an ‘Existential Threat’ to Boston Subway System 0721

Boston Could See a Rash of Flooding in Years to Come from Climate Change 0721 - high-tide flooding

Condo Collapse Could Stoke Miami Climate Fear in Home Buyers 0721

Miami Tower Collapse Stokes New Fears of Rising Seas 0621

Up to 410 Million People at Risk from Sea Level Rises 0621

'The Water Is Coming’ - Florida Keys Face Stark Reality as Seas Rise 0621

‘Now, It’s about Elevation’ - Buying a South Florida Home in a Sea Level Rise Era 0521

Sea Level Rise Added $8 Billion to Hurricane Sandy’s Damage 0521

100s of Coastal Airports at Risk from Flooding, Sea-Level Rise 0521

We Must Start Refreezing the Arctic Ocean Very Soon to Save Our Megacities 0121

Sea Level Rise Cuts Some Norfolk Stormwater System Capacity 50% 0121

Raising Roads for Sea Rise in Florida Keys Could Cost Residents $1.8 Billion 1220

King Tides, Boosted by Rising Seas, Floods Communities along the East Coast 1020

Florida Sees Signals of a Climate-Driven Housing Crisis 1020

NZ’s Antarctic Scott Base Plans for Sea Level Rise – and Fall 0920

Charleston Sues Fossil Fuel Companies for $2 Billion to Fight Climate Floods 0920

Some California Cities Think They’re Safe from Sea Level Rise.  They’re Not. 0820

Coastal Flooding Could Hit 20% of World GDP by 2100 - 0720 - 20% each year

New Data Shows an ‘Extraordinary’ Rise in U.S. Coastal Flooding 0720

Loss of Louisiana Marshes That Protect New Orleans Is ‘Probably Inevitable’ 0520

As Sea Levels Rise, Will Drinking Water Supplies Be at Risk? 0420

Flooding Will Affect Twice as Many People Worldwide by 2030 - 0420

US to Have Major Floods Daily unless Sea-Level Rise Is Curbed 0420

Sea Level Rise Could Cut 15% Off Value of Florida Coastal Homes by 2030 - 0120

82 Days Underwater in Florida Keys - the Tide Is High, but They’re Holding On 1119

Venice Floods - Climate Change behind Highest Tide in 50 Years, Says Mayor 1119

Far More People Are Threatened by Rising Seas than Scientists Realized 1019

Rising Seas Will Erase More Cities by 2050, New Research Shows 1019

How Extreme Sea Level Events Are Going to Increase in Australia 1019
    sea flooding days become more frequent as seas rise

Extreme Sea Level Events ‘Will Hit Once a Year by 2050’ - 0919 extreme = 1 / century, now

The Melting Arctic is Shanghai's Worst Nightmare 0919

Climate Change Is About to Split High Arctic Spitzbergen in 2 - 0919

Bangladesh Is Disappearing under Rising Tides 0919

Retreating from Rising Seas Isn’t a Win or a Defeat — it’s Reality 0919

Louisiana’s Coastline Is Disappearing.  Can the Bayou Be Saved? 0719

From Atlantic City to Key West - 21 Beach Towns Will Soon Be under Water 0719

Sea Level Rise Could Cost Florida $76 Billion, US $400 Billion by 2040 - 0719

Are Waterfront Hotels Ready for Climate Change? 0519

Louisiana Coastal Residents Agree They Face ‘Existential’ Crisis 0519

Virginia Beach Wants to Require Developers to Factor in Sea Level Rise for New Projects 0519

Oceans Could Rise over 6 Feet by 2100 as Polar Ice Melts, Swamping NYC, etc. 0519
    It could inundate 700,000 square miles and displace 187 million people or more.

Climate Change Is Already Battering This West African City 0419

California Sea Level Rise Could Exceed Worst Wildfire & Earthquake Destruction 0319

Coastal Flooding Is Erasing Billions in Property Value as Sea Level Rises 0219 - over $16 billion in US since 2005

Sea Level Rise Could Cost Virginia Beach Billions of Dollars 0119

Rising Waters Are Drowning Amtrak's Northeast Corridor 1218 - bad by 2050 with 2 foot sea level rise

Rising Seas Will Swamp UK Homes, Report Says 1018

Once Iraq's Venice, Basra's Waters Have Now Turned Deadly 0918 - salinization, garbage, toxins

Sea Level Rise Is Eroding Home Value, and Owners Might Not Even Know It 0818

Cost of Coastal Flooding in Europe Could Reach $1 Trillion Annually by 2100 - 0818

Rising Seas Could Knock Out the Internet - Sooner than Scientists Thought 0818

Rising Ocean Waters from Global Warming Could Cost $ Trillions 0718

Coral Reefs ‘Will Be Overwhelmed by Rising Oceans’ 0618 - Corals cannot build a reef higher as fast as seas will rise.

Southern California's Coastal Communities Could Lose 130 Feet of Cliffs by 2100 - 0618

Flooding from Sea Level Rise Threatens over 300,000 US Coastal Homes 0618

‘Clear-Sky’ Flooding Worsens across U.S. as Sea Levels Rise 0618

Everglades Threatened as Florida's Mangroves Face Death by Rising Sea Level 0518

Sunny Day Flooding Worsens at NC Beaches - Sea Rise Is Decades Too Soon 0518
    20 N.C. communities could be submerged by sea water in the next 15 years, 28% of Cape Hatteras by 2060, etc.

The Military Paid for a Study on Sea Level Rise.  The Results Were Scary. 0418
    Half is about effect on US military bases, especially Pacific Islands, but also Atlantic Coast bases.

Homes near Ocean Risk Losing Value, Even in a Hot Market 0418 - Boston area

Seas Are Rising Too Fast to Save Much of the Mississippi River Delta 0418

High-Tide Flooding Could Happen ‘Every Other Day’ by Late This Century 0318

Powerful Winter Storm Shows Damage High Tides with Sea Level Rise Can Do 0318

New US Report Predicts Rising Tides, More Flooding 0318

Sea Level Rise Damaging More U.S. Bases, Former Top Military Brass Warn 0218

Why the Impact of Climate Change on Karachi Is a Big Threat for Pakistan 0218

How Climate Change Is Triggering a Migrant Crisis in Vietnam 0118

“Boats Pass over Where Our Land Was'- Bangladesh's Climate Refugees 0118

Sea Level Rise Could Displace 20,000 in Hawaii by 2100 - 0118

2017 Articles and earlier

"Climate Gentrification" Could Add Value to Elevation in Real Estate 1217

This Is What Happens when the Hurricane Hits Miami in 2037 - 1217

A Poison in Our Island 1117 - Radioactive legacy of US H-bomb tests on Enetewak Atoll will be swallowed by rising seas.

From Miami to Shanghai - 3°C Warming to Leave World Cities below Sea Level 1117

Rising Seas Are Flooding Virginia’s Naval Base.  Can It Be Fixed? 1017

New York City’s Fate Is Closely Tied to Antarctic Ice, Scientists Warn 1017

Waiting for the Tide to Turn - Kiribati's Fight for Survival 1017

Flooding in Miami Is No Longer News, but It’s Certainly Newsworthy 0817

U.S. Communities Will Face Chronic Flooding as Sea Levels Rise 0717

Sea Level Rise Is Accelerating in Florida, Scientists Warn 0717 - up to more than 3 inches per decade already

The Drowning Villages of Indonesia 0717

Rapid Sinking of Louisiana’s Coast Already Counts as a ‘Worst Case Scenario’ 0617

U.S. Vulnerable to Worst of Extreme Sea Rise 0417

Nightmare Scenario for Florida’s Coastal Homeowners 0417 - When masts of small boats cannot fit under bridges, values of affected properties start to drop.  Spiral to sell before prices plunge further.

Sea Level Rise Could Send U.S. ‘Climate Migrants' Fleeing to Austin, Atlanta 0417

Unless Emissions Drop, Much of Coastal Louisiana Will Be Swamped 0417

Modest Sea-Level Rise in California Could Be Catastrophic 0417

Rising Waters Threaten China’s Rising Cities 0417

Coastal Cities Could Flood 3 Times a Week by 2045 - 0217

Louisiana Won’t Let Trump Downplay Global Warming 0117

Final Obama Climate Reports Projects Seas to Rise 1 to 8 Feet by 2100 - 0117 - consequences for various cities

Flooding in Denmark Becoming the Norm 0117

Sea Level Rise May Severely Impact Tampa by 2040 - 1216

Major Flooding in UK Now Likely Every Year, Warns Lead Climate Adviser 1216

Everglades' Water at Risk from Sea-Level Rise 1216

Miami's Causeways Highly Vulnerable to Sea-Level Rise 1216

Perils of Climate Change Could Swamp Coastal Real Estate 1116

What Worries Scientists So Much about Sea-Level Rise after 2050 - 1116

These Are the Cities Most at Risk from Sea Level Rise 1116

Will Climate Change Sink the Mekong Delta? 1016

Sea Level Rise in Coastal Bangladesh 0916

As Sea Levels Rise, Nearly 1.9 Million U.S. Homes Could Be Underwater by 2100 - 0816

Louisiana’s Sinking Coast Is a $100 Billion Nightmare for Big Oil 0816

Rising Seas Threaten to Swamp U.S. Military Bases by 2050 - 0716

Pacific Atolls ‘Could Be Underwater by 2050’ - 0716

Rising Seas Push Too Much Salt Into The Florida Everglades 0516

Climate Change Blamed after Pacific Swallows Villages, 5 Solomon Islands 0516

Abrupt Sea Level Rise Looms as Increasingly Realistic Threat 0516

NASA Is Facing a Climate Change Countdown 0416

James Hansen Warns of Much Worse than Expected Sea Level Rise 0316

We Had All Better Hope These Scientists Are Wrong about Earth’s Future 0316

Pakistan’s Biggest Threat Isn’t Terrorism, It’s Climate Change 0316 - Salt water creeps into Karachi, with 45% of GNP.

Preparing for the Inevitable Sea-Level Rise 0216

As Sea Levels Rise, Economic Damage Piles Up Even Faster 0216

Australia's Military Sees Rising Challenges from Climate Change 0216

Louisiana Tribe Officially Becomes America's First Climate Refugees 0216

Effects of Climate Change in Bangladesh 0116

Barrier Islands Could Be Unlivable in 50 Years 0116

China’s Sea Change 1215

Climate Refugees and a Collapsing City 1115

India’s Rising Tides and Temperatures 1115

West Antarctic Ice Melt Could Raise Seas by 3 Meters 1115

New York Prepares for Up to 6 Feet of Sea Level Rise 1115

Miami, New Orleans Will Inevitably Be Submerged 1015

Rising Salinity Threatens Bangladesh's Coastal Communities 1015

American Cities Most Threatened by Rising Sea Levels 1015

Sea Level Rise Increasing Major Storms off New Jersey 0915

Atlantic Ocean Excited To Move Into Beautiful Beachfront Mansion Soon 0915 - West Palm Beach

Worst-Case Scenario for Sea Level Rise - No More New York, Berlin or Shanghai 0915

Study Predicts All Antarctic Ice to Melt if All Fossil Fuels Are Burned 0915

Rising Sea Level Threatens Coastal Restoration, New Orleans Levees 0815

Greenland Melt Prompts NASA Fears of Coastal Flooding 0815

Vietnam Ready to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions 0815

Is New Orleans Safe? 0815

From the Mississippi to the Ganges, River Deltas Are in Major Trouble 0815

Salt Water Increasingly Attacks Vietnam’s Mekong Delta 0715

Sandy Caused Record Sea Levels, $23 Billion Damages in New York State 0715

Rising Seas, Storm Surge, Rain Raise Severe Flooding Risk in Biggest US Cities 0715

Come Hell or High Water - the Disaster Scenario that Is South Florida 0715

Sea Levels Could Rise At Least 20 Feet 0715 - another take on study by Jim Hansen, Eric Rignot, et al.

Billions of Dollars of Pacific Infrastructure at Risk from Climate Change 0715

North Carolina’s Outer Banks Could Lose $2 Billion to Rising Seas 0615

Why Miami is the ‘New Atlantis’ 0615

Seacoast Vacation Homes Hit by $250 insurance Surcharge 0515

Sea-Level Rise Accelerating, as Earth's Ice Sheets Melt  0515

Sea Rise Threatens Florida Coast, But There’s No Statewide Plan 0515

Fading Shores - Reality of Climate Change 0515

Obama’s Trip to Florida Everglades Is a Shrewd Move in Climate Debate 0415

Venice's Sink or Swim Moment 0415

California Facing Extreme Heat Waves and Rising Seas 0415

Miami Beach 'Rising' to Challenge of Encroaching Seas 0415

Rising Oceans Could Displace Millions of Americans by 2100 - 0315

These Florida Republicans Are Busy Protecting Their Coasts from Sea Level Rise 0315

Rise in Government Insurance Rates to Mirror Rising Waters, Flood Debt 0315

1 in 6 UK Homes at Risk from Flooding 0315

UK's Coastal Railways Vulnerable to Climate Threat 0315

Antarctica's Retreating Ice May Re-Shape Earth 0215

Millions at Risk From Rapid Sea Rise in India/Bangladesh Swampy Sundarbans 0215

Rising Sea Levels and Temperatures Ahead for NYC 0215

The Pentagon & Climate Change - How Deniers Put National Security at Risk 0215

Rising Seas Affecting Kennedy Space Center 0215

Pakistan's Coastal Villagers Retreat as Seas Gobble Land 0115

US Coastal Cities Face Daily Flooding by Mid-Century – NOAA 0115

Almost 7,000 UK Properties to Be Sacrificed to Rising Seas 1214

US Damages Through 2100 Can Top $1.1 Trillion from Rising Seas, Storm Surge 1214

Warming World's Rising Seas Wash Away Some of South Florida's Glitz 1214

Major Deltas ‘Could Be Drowned’ 1214

Huge, Hidden Cost of Protecting Homeowners from the Rising Sea 1114

Capping Warming at 2°C Not Enough to Avert Disaster, Experts Warn 1114

Amid Rising Water, Sinking Land, Southern Louisiana Folks Sit Tight 1014

Sea Level Rise Making Floods Routine for Coastal Cities 1014

Coastal Paradise Confronts Its Watery Future 0914

$226 Billion in Predicted Australian Damage from Rising Seas by 2100 - 0914

Climate Change Concerns Weigh on Cape Cod Home-Buying Decisions 0914

South Australians May Have to Carry Cost of Losing Homes to Rising Seas 0414

Storm Surge Could Flood NYC 1 in Every 4 Years 0414

Indonesia Risks Losing Up to 1,500 Islands by 2050 - 0214

Rising Seas Threaten Cape Cod's Groundwater 0214

Caribbean Climate In Crisis 0214

New Jersey Shore Likely Faces Unprecedented Flooding by 2050 - 1213

Climate-Threatened Solomon Islanders Prepare for Evacuation 1113

Drowning Kiribati 1113

Rising Sea Levels, Falling Florida Real Estate Values 1113

Coast Protection Costs Rise with Sea Levels 1113

Underwater Destiny for Many N.J. Towns? 1113

Tanzania’s Coastal Communities Forced to Drink Seawater 1013

Higher Sea Levels Mean More Flood Damage from Storms Like Isabel 0913

Virginia Mayors - Time to Respond to Climate Change 0913

As Pacific Islands Flood, a Climate-Driven Exodus to US Grows 0913

Pacific islands Fighting for Survival, as Sea Levels Rise 0913

Post-Katrina, Black Families Still More Vulnerable to Extreme Weather 0813

Most of Manila Under Water, as Record Storms Sweep Parts of Asia 0813

Greenwich CT Stilt Houses Foreshadow Impact of New FEMA Maps 0813

World's Coastal Cities Face $1 Trillion Flood Losses a Year by 2050 0813

Rising Seas - Holland to New Holland to Miami 0813

Timing a Rise in Sea Level 0813

Sacramento Areas Will Be Covered by Rising Seas 0813

Sea Level Rise to Play Bigger Role in NYC Storms 0813

Sea Level Rise Locking In Quickly, Cities Threatened 0713

Simultaneous Disasters Batter Pacific Islands 0713

Goodbye, Miami - McKibben 0613 - a long and detailed look at Miami, as it slowly vanishes beneath the waves over the next century or so, as published in Rolling Stone

6 of the World's Most Extensive Climate Adaptation Plans 0613

4 Ways US Government Subsidizes Risky Coastal Rebuilding 0613

Cities of the World Plan Adaptation to Climate Change 0613

Airports in US Face Increasing Threat From Rising Seas 0613

Virginia's Norfolk Area Seeks Ways to Cope with Sea Level Rise 0613

Flood Risk Areas in US Could Increase by 45% by 2100, Due to Climate Change 0613

Will New York's Sea-Level Plan Play in Miami? 0613

New York Is a City More at Risk, Say New Climate Data 0613

Aussies in Just One County Fear Sea-Level Policy May Slash $1 Billion Off Their Property Values 0513 

Climate Change Drowning the ‘Venice of Africa’ 0513

A: sea water expansion.  

B: mountain (non-polar) glaciers. 

C: Greenland.

D: Antarctica.

E: Total.

Note that paleoclimate studies (indirect observations) have found much higher sea level rise per °C warming than Levermann's models do.  The difference stems from Antarctica.

     Also, like Levermann's, much published research leaves unclear if warming is surface or the entire ocean.  Stated differently, they assume than air at the land and sea surface warms as fast as the water in the ocean.  Since 1960, land and sea surfaces have warmed 25 (recently) to 50 times (not as recently) as fast the whole ocean.

     CAVEAT: Paleoclimate studies indicate 4-24 meters sea level rise long-term per 1°C.  This indicates that Antarctic melting has been much more sensitive to temperature than models suggest.  In the past 2 million years, that’s because there was more ice to melt.

     See, for example, "Climate Sensitivity, Sea Level & Atmospheric CO2“ - Hansen 0913 on Overviews page for sea level and Deep Ocean Temperatures (3rd graph on Home page, also on Overviews page & 2nd graph on Heat page).  For a 2nd example, see Tripati (2009) on Heat page: 3-6°C warmer and seas 25-40 meters higher (7-8 meters per °C) - for essentially today's CO2 levels.  For a 3rd example, connect 120-meter sea level rise since the last galcial maximum (see graph above) to warming since then from Vostok ice core data, which show 8-10°C warming over that time span (at the polar surface, but ~ 3 to 5°C warming for the deep ocean. (This comes from Hansen's book chapter in Springer, 2012, which has part 3 of 3-part graph (part 1 is on Home page and parts 1-2 on Overviews page)).



What Sea Level Rise Looks Like for 24 US Cities 0413 - 96 interactive inundation maps are on the web here.  Here are excerpts: Miami, New York, Norfolk, & Sacramento (also on Water page).

Present Levels

+5 feet

+12 Feet

+25 Feet

Palm Beach Must Act on Rising Sea Levels 0213

     Map is from elsewhere.

GIS = Greenland Ice Sheet

WAIS = West Antarctic Ice Sheet

EAIS = East Antarctic Ice Sheet

Section Map: Weather & Sea Level Rise