The Slideshows

Dr. Fry's scientific paper deriving the results shown above was published in Decmber 2020 in Environmental Sustainability and Climate Change.  It is here:

Albedo Changes Drive 4.9 to 9.4°C Global Warming by 2400.  PDF, 15 pages

     The main presentation (slide show) summarizes global warming - the evidence, the impacts, and what to do.  The paper above was developed out of research summarized in the slide shows.  The slide show (updated most months) is available in  PPTX and PDF formats.
Global Warming - So What?  PPTX (Office 2011)  Last updated March 2024.

     This set of 100 slides takes 86 minutes to view.  Many of the slides are dense with information, so information on slides generally rolls out a bit at a time.  When a black dot appears in the upper right corner of a slide, click to continue.
    (The slides works well with PowerPoint, but the many graphs, plus timing and direction of text roll-out, get mangled with Keynote.  Open Office is also missing text color.)  If you cannot use PowerPoint, try the PDF version, available here:

Global Warming - So What? - PDF

Global Warming - So What? - PPT (older Office), with 82 slides is also available.  It was last updated in April 2017. (When a recent version of Office (PPTX) opens an older version (PPT) file, it declares an “error.”  Formatting changes it makes to “repair” the file create a few vertical mis-spacings in complex text.)

      Much of the same information is here (Global Warming - So What - DOC), a 2016 scholarly paper with references, an abridged version of the slide show at that time, with less detail than the Lite version but more than the Mini one.  It does not include much of my albedo research and projections of the future.

    Additional slides, with further details, are available here: Additional Slides.  These 34 slides take almost half an hour to view.

     Shorter slide shows summarizing the situation are also available.
They have most, much, or some of the same information.

Global Warming - So What? - Lite (PPTX) has 81 slides.  It takes 66 minutes to view.  It omits many details. Last updated Janury 2023.

The PDF version is here: Global Warming - So What - Lite - PDF.

Global Warming - So What? - Mini (PPTX) has 69 slides and takes 52 minutes.  It also omits explanations of warming.  Updated Janury 2023.

     A 15-minute presentation (28 slides) from August and October 2019, oriented toward the science, is available here:
Climate Feedbacks - Why We Must Go Far beyond Carbon Neutral

     Another version (39 slides, 23 minutes), from an international conference in September 2022, is here:
Dominant Role of Albedo Feedbacks in Recent and Future Warming

     A quite similar version (43 slides, 23 minutes), from an international conference in August 2022, is here:
Key Role of Albedo Feedbacks in Recent and Future Warming.

     The presentation is developed in more scientific depth below, but with less text and diagrams per slide.

Feedbacks - Why Carbon Neutral Is Way Not Good Enough
     Its 92 slides take 38 minutes to view.

Below are 5 videos of my PPTX slide shows,
as well as 6-7 slide shows for download.
They are complex PowerPoint slides.  Their effects (fly in from bottom and timing) work poorly in Google Slides, Keynote, or Open Office.

At the bottom is a video by futurist Tony Seba on how lower prices for green electricity and electric vehicles will drive their rapid adoption.


67 slides, 42 minutes. Developed for a class of high school science teachers, it has more filler material, such as tables of contents, recaps, etc.


One is a 70-slide version video (48 minutes)


         .    Presentation with updated projection through 2400, developed for an audience at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in October 2018 is available below as slides, not video.

Just the Slideshow

Feedbacks - Why Carbon Neutral Is Way Not Good Enough

Slideshow only. No Commentary.

pptx download

Phasing Out Fossil Fuels by 2050 Can Hold Global Warming to 8°C

    43 slides take about 26 minutes to view.  As shown above, slower phase-out (2035 peak) goes with an estimated 9°C warming by 2400, while phase-out by 2050 combined with massive CO2 removal, mostly later this century, can hold warming by 2400 to less than 3°C.  2°C warming is probably not possible without 4 things simultaneously: (1) rapid phase-out of fossil fuels, (2) massive CO2 removal - soon, (3) refreezing the Arctic Ocean, and (4) ongoing injections of aerosols or particulates into the stratosphere.

pptx download 

25 minute Video with Commentary

As a Slideshow

Albedo Changes Drive 4.9 to 9.4°C Global Warming by 2400

A 35-slide video for an August 28-29, 2020 conference from London.  25 minutes.  It adds my findings on climate sensitivity.

pptx download 

27 minute video with commentary

The Slideshow

Albedo Changes Drive 4.9 to 9.4°C Global Warming by 2400

A 42-slide show for an October 24-27, 2020 conference from MIT and Beijing.  It adds my research on warming trends since 1975 (see mid-page above) across the US.

pptx download 

       The older presentation below focuses on lessons that climate change several million years ago hold for Earth’s climate in the next few decades to centuries.  Written for the educated public, including scientists, its 35 slides take 24 minutes to view.  To model the future to 2400, it emphasizes changes in how much sunlight reflects from Earth’s surface and atmosphere (clouds, haze), plus natural emissions from permafrost, etc.  Emissions since this show was developed (400 ppm CO2, vs 419 in 2021)  commit Earth’s land surface to more warming than shown in the title.

4.5 to 7.8°C Global Surface Warming from Today's CO2 and CH4 Levels

 Note the earlier data, from early 2018 or before, when CO2 and CH4 levels were lower and not quite as much future heating (4.5 or 7.8, versus 4.9 or 9.4) was baked in.

pptx download 

Climate Change in the Distant Past Shows Our Path to Our Hot Future 0318

For audience in India.  It was updated (50 slides takes 31 minutes) and adapted for an international audience at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

pptx download 

320 ppm - Why Humanity Must Move Far Beyond Carbon Neutral

  This presentation focuses on lessons that climate change in earlier eras holds for Earth’s climate in the next few decades to centuries.  Written for a broader audience, its 31 slides take 20 minutes to view.

pptx download 

US City Summers Are Warming 10.5°F per Century

     This 26-slide presentation gives more detail on temperature trends in the US.  It takes 13 minutes, plus appendices (54 slides) with details for each region and state.

pptx download 

14 Key Warming Slides

14 key Warming Slides

pptx download 

for MA CCL Chapter Leaders

Slides for Massachusetts Citizens Climate Lobby - 30 slides, 12 minutes, April 2021.  It emphasizes the coming rapid decarbonization of electricity production and ground transportation, due to economic forces of innovation in batteries, solar and wind.

pptx download 

This slideshow draws on Tony Seba’s work, featured in the video to the left.  A must-watch for understanding our emission trajectory for the next 1-2 decades.

     The remainder of the site address aspects of climate change.  They include excerpts from the slide shows, plus many articles.  Over half of the figures are drawn from the articles directly above (or to the right).
    5 sections show how climate is changing, starting with Overviews.  2 sections are about the carbon cycle.  5 sections detail impacts, starting with Bio-Impacts.  3 sections cover energy, starting with "Fossil Fuels & Nuclear Energy”.  3 sections cover government actions, carbon pricing, and economics.  2 sections are data sets and 1 is about me.
The shortcuts to sections and pages flow down from the 3 short horizontal lines at the top left of any page.

     This website contains several books, plus some 16,000 articles, with 1,500-2,000 illustrations (some multiple panel, some duplicate), most drawn from the articles.
    The articles are arranged with the most recent at the top, within a topic.   Month and year come after an article's title, e.g. 0522 for May 2022.  Sections have 5-12 pages, many with multiple topics, each with many articles (files) and usually some illustrations.  Over 1/3 of the 16,000+ articles appear in more than one place, as relevant.  Links to other pages in a section and other sections (Site Map) appear below the pages.

     Some 350 articles in PDF form are original scientific studies or summary studies (e.g., IPCC report pieces or US National Climate Assessment chapters).  But some 16,000 are summaries of more studies (RTF format, plus a few in DOC), drawn from the scientific press.  About 500 more files are small data bases in XLS (e.g., daily Arctic Ocean ice area; weekly US drought indices; monthly US electricity by source / fuel; annual CO2 emissions by nation; mean of daily summer high temperatures, by US city by month and year; etc).

Dr. Gene R. H. Fry