A spectacular 4-minute video of a calving event for ice the area of Manhattan, but taller.

Areas of glacier retreat (red arrows) and advance (blue)

Topographic map of Antarctica's bedrock.

     Antarctica holds about 90% of the ice on Earth, almost 10% in West Antarctica (including 1% in the Antarctic Peninsula) and some 80% in East Antarctica (in right half of circle below).  West Antarctica's ice, if melted, would raise sea level ~5 meters (16 feet).  If all of East Antarctica's ice melted, it would raise sea level another ~55 meters (180 feet).  Until 40 million years ago, Antarctica had no ice and sea levels were far higher than now.

     Glaciation in Antarctica began 39 million years (MY) ago.  It was largely complete by 34 MY ago.  Antarctic ice has waxed and waned some since then, but has been generally similar to the amount today.

    In recent years, ice shelf breakup has concentrated on the Antarctic Peninsula (upper left).  But ice loss from retreating glaciers in West Antarctica (in left half of circle) has begun.

     Roughly 2/3 of West Antarctica's ice is grounded below sea level.  But so is some 1/3 of East Antarctica’s, more than half in the Wilkes and Aurora Basins (“southeast” quadrant), toward Australia and New Zealand.  That’s more square miles in the East than the West.

     Map by Paul V. Heinrich, data from BEDMAP Consortium (European Ice Sheet Modelling Initiative, Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research)

This Extraordinary Marine Heat Wave Could Threaten Antarctica’s Ice Shelves 0223

Tagged Seal Led Scientists to Potential 5-15 Foot Sea Level Rise from Antarctica 0123

Iceberg about the Size of London Breaks Off in Antarctica 0123

Glacier That Could Raise Seas Several Feet Is Holding On by Its Fingernails 0922

Antarctica’s ‘Sleeping Giant’ Risks Melting, Threatens Spike in Sea Levels 0822

Climate Change’s Impact Intensifies, Led by Arctic 0822 - In Antarctica, ice shelf collapses, most notably Conger, adjacent to the largest glacier on Earth, in East Antarctica

These 2 Massive West Antarctic Glaciers Have Melted the Most in at Least 5,500 Years 0622

Scientists Solve Antarctic Ice Shelves Collapse Puzzle 0422

Antarctic Ice Shelves Are Shattering.  How Fast Will Seas Rise? 0322

Satellite Data Show Collapse of Entire, Small, Conger Ice Shelf in Antarctica 0322

40°C above Normal - What’s Causing Extraordinary Heating in Polar Regions? 0322

It’s 70°F above Normal in Vostok, East Antarctica.  Scientists Are Flabbergasted 0322

Soot Is Accelerating Snow Melt in Popular Parts of Antarctica 0222

Serious, Salty Trouble Is Brewing under Antarctic Glaciers 0222

Flourishing Plants Show Warming Antarctica Undergoing ‘Major Change’ 0222

Have Tipping Points Already Been Passed for Critical Climate Systems? (2) West Antarctica and the "Doomsday" Glacier 0122

Crucial West Antarctic Ice Shelf Could Fail within 5 Years 1221

Climate Change Has Destabilized Earth’s Poles, Imperiling the Rest of the Planet 1221

Antarctic Lake’s Disappearance Might Offer Clues about Melting Ice Shelves 0721

Antarctic Nearing Climate Disaster despite Landmark Historic Treaty 0621

Melting Pine Island Glacier Was Already the Biggest Source of Sea Level Rise. Then Things Got Worse. 0621

Antarctica Sheds World’s Largest Iceberg, Nearly 4 X as Big as New York City 0521

Meeting Paris Climate Goal Critical to Prevent Antarctic Ice Shelf Disintegration 0521 - take 4 on a study mostly discussed under sea level rise

1/3 of Antarctic Ice Shelves Will Collapse amid 4°C Global Heating 0421

West Antarctica’s Pine Island Glacier Tipping Point Confirmed for 1st Time 0421

Iceberg Bigger than New York City Broke Off near a UK Base in Antarctica 0221

West Antarctica's Getz Glaciers Flowing Faster 0221

2018-2020 Articles

Ice Shelves Propping Up West Antarctica’s 2 Largest Glaciers Are Breaking Up 0920

Why Antarctica's Colossal Thwaites Glacier Is Melting Fast 0920 - seabed is deeper than thought, warmer ocean melting ice from beneath

Ancient History of East Antarctic Ice Has Unsettling News for Sea Level Rise 0720

New Warnings over Rapid Melting at Antarctica’s ‘Doomsday Glacier’ 0720

Antarctic Ice Melt Related to Tropical Weather Shifts – a Game Changer? 0420

Canyon in East Antarctic’s Denman Glacier Threatens 5-Foot Sea Level Rise 0320

West Antarctica’s Largest, Most Dangerous Glacier Is Melting from Below 0120 - Thwaites Glacier

Antarctica's Doomsday Glacier Is Melting.  Can We Save It in Time? 0120 - Thwaites Glacier

Can We Stop Antarctica's Ice Collapse? 0120 - 120,000 years ago, Antarctica was 6°C warmer and seas wre 6-9 meters higher.  Longish analysis.

Antarctic Ice Melt May Have Hit an All-Time High on Christmas Eve 1219

What’s Driving Antarctica's Meltdown? 1119

How Antarctica Is Melting from Above and Below 1019

A Big Crack Grew, till a Huge Iceberg Just Split From Antarctica 1019

Can Trillion-Ton Snow Cannons Save Us from Sea-Level Rise? 0719

Glacial Melting in Antarctica May Become Irreversible 0719

1/4 of West Antarctica’s Ice Now Considered Unstable 0519

Extraordinary Thinning of Ice Sheets Revealed Deep inside Antarctica 0519

World's Largest Ice Shelf Is Melting 10 Times Faster than Expected 0519

Even Antarctica’s Coldest Region Is Starting to Melt 0319

Mysterious Green Antarctic Icebergs Might Be Fertilizing the Southern Ocean 0319

Collapse in Ice Shelf for Antarctica’s Thwaites Glacier - Omen of Catastrophe 0319

Studies Shed New Light on Antarctica’s Future Contribution to Sea Level Rise 0219

Cavity 2/3 the Size of Manhattan Discovered under Antarctica’s Thwaites Glacier 0219 - hidden loss carved by warming ocean

Ice Loss from Antarctica Increased 6-Fold since the 1970s - 0119 - take 1 on study

Antarctica Ice Melt Has Jumped 530% over 4 Decades, 280% in Last 2 - 0119 - take 2

Ancient Antarctic Ice Sheet Collapse Could Recur, Triggering New Global Flood 1218 - 125K years ago, an ice sheet melted, raising sea levels 30 feet, including up to 8 feet a century.

East Antarctica's Glaciers Are Stirring 1218

Land Rebounding under Antarctic Ice 0618

Mass Balance of the Antarctic Ice Sheet from 1992 to 2017 - Shepherd 0618 - PDF

Mass Balance of the Antarctic Ice Sheet from 1992 to 2017 - Shepherd 0618 - Abstract

Global Warming Is Melting Antarctic Ice from Below 0518

'Extreme' Changes Underway in Some of Antarctica’s Biggest Glaciers 0418

An Alarming 10% of Antarctica’s Coastal Glaciers Are Now in Retreat 0418

Major Trend of More Snowfall Seen in Antarctica Could Counter Sea Level Rise 0118

2017 Articles and earlier

Antarctic Iceberg Portends Big Glacier Retreat 1217

West Antarctica’s 2 Biggest Glaciers Accelerate Toward the Sea 1017

Study Suggests the Ocean Could Rise More, and Faster, than We Thought 1017

Satellites Spy Antarctic ‘Upside-Down Ice Canyon' 1017

Key Antarctic Glacier - Pine Island - Just Lost a Huge Piece of Ice 0917

Giant Iceberg Splits from Antarctic 0717 - a bit larger than Delaware, from Larsen C ice shelf on Antarctic Peninsula

Shells Record West Antarctic Glacier Retreat 0717

Antarctica's Ice-Free Areas to Increase up to 1/4 by 2100 - 0617

Scientists Stunned by Antarctic Rainfall and a Melt Area Bigger than Texas 0617

Thanks to Global Warming, Antarctica Is Beginning to Turn Green 0517

Larsen C Ice Shelf Crack Just Sprouted a New Branch 0517

Antarctica's Troublesome ‘Hairdryer Winds' 0417

Vast Rivers and Waterfalls Discovered across Antarctica 0417

Antarctica Just Shed a Manhattan-Sized Chunk of Ice 0217

Antarctic Past Points to Sea Level Threat 0117

Warm Ocean Water Is Melting the Biggest Glacier in East Antarctica 1216

Odd Rifts in Antarctic Ice Could Mean ‘Sayonara, Glacier’ 1116

What It Means for Sea Level When 2 Huge Antarctic Glaciers Are Unstable 1016

Undermined by Warm Water, West Antarctic Glacier Lost 1,607 Feet of Ice Thickness in under 10 Years 1016

Scientists May Have Solved Key Riddle about Antarctica.  It’s Bad News. 0916

Lengthening Crack Threatens to Cause an Antarctic Ice Shelf to Collapse 0816

Dazzling Blue Lakes Are Forming in Antarctica.  That Worries Scientists. 0816

These Elephant Seals Taught Scientists Why Antarctica Is Melting So Fast 0616 - Ocean warms ice from below.

Yet Another Part of Antarctica May Be in Trouble 0616 - by Bellinghausen Sea, to Pacific side of the Peninsula

Better Models of Antarctic Ice Collapse Show Much Faster Sea Level Rise 0416 - includes take 5 on DeConto study
      Note similarity of the study’s contours (below)  to the map of Antarctic bedrock above.

Ice Melt Could Make Seas Rise 6 Feet by 2100 - 0316 - take 1 on DeConto-Pollard study.  40+ feet by 2500 possible

Climate Forecasts Underestimate Sea-Level-Rise Impact of Antarctic Thaw 0316 - take 2.  50+ feet by 2500 possible

Antarctic Model Raises Prospect of Unstoppable Ice Collapse 0316 - take 3.  50+ feet by 2500 possible

James Hansen Warns of Much Worse than Expected Sea Level Rise 0316 - take 2 on study above in Ice Dynamics

We Had All Better Hope These Scientists Are Wrong about Earth’s Future 0316 - take 1 on study above in Ice Dynamics

Antarctica Could Be Much More Vulnerable to Melting than We Thought 0216

Warmer Seas Speed Up Antarctic Ice Melt 0216

What the Earth Will Be Like in 10,000 years, according to Scientists 0216

Weakening Ice Shelves Raise Sea Level Rise Concerns 0216

Big Antarctic Ice Melt Scenarios This Century ‘Not Plausible' 1115

West Antarctic Ice Melt Could Raise Seas by 3 Meters 1115

Experts Dispute NASA Study Showing Antarctic Ice Gain 1115

Net Gains for Antarctic Ice Sheets – NASA 1015

Trouble as Antarctica's Glaciers Are Undermined by Warm Water 1015

Antarctic Ice Shelves Collapse Would Bring 1,000s of Years of Sea-Level Rise 1015

Why Scientists Are So Worried about Antarctica’s Ice Shelves 1015

Worst-Case Scenario for Sea Level Rise- No More New York, Berlin or Shanghai 0915

Climate Change and the Fate of Antarctica 0915

Study Predicts All Antarctic Ice to Melt if All Fossil Fuels Are Burned 0915

Scientists Are Still Trying to Figure Out How Fast We Could Lose West Antarctica 0815

New Antarctic Research Increases Sea Level Rise Estimates 0815

Antarctic Glaciers Are Thinning So Fast, It's Like a Switch Was Flipped 0515

Antarctic Peninsula in ‘Dramatic' Ice Loss 0515

Antarctica's Growing Sea Ice Is Restricting Access to Research Stations 0515

10,000-Year-Old Antarctic Ice Shelf Will Disappear by 2020 - NASA 0515

Larsen C Ice Shelf, the Size of Scotland, Could Be at ‘Imminent Risk’ 0515

Antarctic Ice Shelves Melting 70% Faster 0315

Antarctic Ice Shelf Thinning Speeds Up 0315

East Antarctic Totten Glacier (Ice for 11 Feet SLR) Melts from Warm Seas Beneath

Antarctica's Retreating Ice May Re-Shape Earth 0215

Texas-Sized East Antarctic Glacier Melting with Warmer Oceans 0115

Our Polar Regions Are Simply 'Melting Away.’  It's A Beautiful Disaster. 0115

Scientists Drill through 2,400 Feet of Antarctic Ice for Climate Clues 0115 - Muck & pebbles on seabed at bottom show glacier movement in West Antarctica.  The Whillan glacier base rests on 10 meters of ocean, not the ground.  This makes it vulnerable to ocean warming beneath it, which melts it from the bottom.

The Antarctic Ice Sheet Is a Sleeping Giant, Beginning to Stir 0115

Rescued Scientists Bring Back a Warning from the Antarctic 1214

Drought, Heat and Ice - 2015 Could Be Tipping Point on Climate 1214

Antarctic Peninsula Glacier Recession 'Unprecedented' 1214

Research Casts Alarming Light on Decline of West Antarctic Glaciers 1214 - This article partly overlaps the next one.

West Antarctic Region Sheds Mount Everest-Sized Amount of Ice Every 2 Years 1214

Underwater ‘Storms' May Hold Key to Melting Antarctic Ice 1114

Antarctic Sea Ice Hits Record High, While the Arctic's Keeps Melting 1014

Gravity Changes Show Antarctica Meltdown 1014

Melting Glaciers Make Antarctic Coastal Waters Rise 2 mm per Year Faster 0914

Antarctic Melt Could Raise Sea Levels Faster 0814

ESA's Cryosat Mission Sees Antarctic Ice Losses Double in 4 Years  0514

Ice Melt in Part of Antarctica ‘Appears Unstoppable,' NASA Says 0514

East Antarctica More at Risk Than Thought to Long-Term Thaw 0514

Pine Island Glacier's Retreat Irreversible 0114

Spy Satellite Data Reveal Antarctic Ice Vulnerability 0813

New Antarctic Ice Core Reveals Secrets of Climate Change 0813

East Antarctic Ice Sheet 'Vulnerable' to Temperature Changes 0813

Frozen Ice Sheet in East Antarctica Melted, 5.3-2.6 Million Years Ago 0713

Antarctic Flood Produces Ice Crater 0713 

Melting in Antarctica Worst in 1,000 Year Record 0413

West Antarctic Ice Sheet Warming Rate Is Twice Earlier Estimate 1212 

Sea Level to Rise Despite More Snow in East Antarctica 1212 

Less Ice Melt in Antarctica 1012 

Antarctica Warmth Unusual, Not Unprecedented 0812 

Valley Size of Grand Canyon Accelerates W Antarctic Ice Melt 0712 

East Antarctica May Be Losing Ice Mass 1109 

Large Antarctic Glacier Thinning Fast 0809 

W Antarctic Ice Collapse History 0509 

How Antarctic Ice Shelves Disintegrate - Wikipedia 0409 

Antarctic Peninsula Ice Shelf Disintegrating 0409 

W Antarctic Ice Sheet to Collapse Again 0309 

New Rifts in Antarctic Ice Shelf 1108

West Antarctic Glaciers Surge 0208 

West Antarctic Ice Melt Accelerates 0108 

Antarctic Ice Ebb & Flow Over Last 10 Million Years 0105 - PDF 

Rapid CO2 Decline Glaciated Antarctica 34 Mya 0103 - PDF

if we continue current emissions rate

if Paris committments are met & world warms only 2°C

Section Map: Ice