Greenland Bedrock Topographic Map                     Created using ETOPO1 Global Relief Model bedrock version

     Greenland holds about 10% of the world's ice.  If it all melts, sea level would rise 6-7 meters (20+ feet).

     Greenland ice growth began almost 10 million years ago and reached roughly current levels more than 2 million years ago.

     Over the past 2 million years, ice sheets repeatedly grew and shrank across Canada, the northern US, most of Siberia, and most of northern Europe.  We call these periods Ice Ages.  At their peak, these ice sheets held twice as much ice as Antarctica does today.  (See Hansen 0913 on Overviews page for a geologically recent history of sea level.)  From 20 to 8 thousand years ago (KYa), those ice sheets vanished, raising sea levels by 1 meter per century, including 1.5 meter per century from 15 to 8 KYa.  

     Some researchers (Robinson, Koenig) have made the case that current CO2 levels are incompatible with continued existence of the Greenland ice cap or sheet, especially once temperatures increase to those associated with past CO2 levels this high (~ 400 ppm).

     Perhaps 20% of Greenland's ice is grounded below sea level.  But most of that is inland sea, not connected to the ocean.  Maybe 5% to the ocean.

2016-2019 Articles

Global Warming’s Duration Will Decide Greenland’s Ice Tipping Point Timing 1219

Greenland’s Ice Loss Has Risen 7-Fold, in Line with Highest Sea-Level Scenario 1219

Cracks in the Greenland Ice Sheet Are Producing Massive Waterfalls 1219

Warmer Subsurface Ocean Melting Greenland Ice 1019

A New Risk Grows - Ice Slabs Worsen Runoff in Greenland's Extreme Melting 0919

At the Bottom of Helheim Glacier in Greenland, Scientists Find Troubling Signs 0819

Greenland Just Lost 11 Billion Tons of Ice – in 1 Day 0819

Greenland Headed for a Record Melt Year, 250 Billion tons of Ice Already Gone 0819

Heat Waves Amplify Near-Record Levels of Ice Melt in Northern Hemisphere 0819

'Climate Emergency’ - Greenland’s Ice Sheet Melting May Break Record 0719

Greenland Is Melting in a Heat Wave 0719

The Glacier That Produced the ‘Titanic’ Iceberg Has Suddenly Stopped Flowing 0519

Greenland Has Been Exceptionally Warm Lately; Ice Is Melting a Month Early 0419

Greenland Is Melting Even Faster than Experts Thought 0419

Unusual Winter Rains Are Driving Sea Level Rise from Greenland 0319 - 70% of ice loss from rain, 30% from glacier calving, etc.

Greenland’s Melting Ice Nears a ‘Tipping Point,’ Scientists Say 0119

Arctic Ice Melting Tripled in 15 Years 1218

What Greenland's 'Unprecedented' Ice Loss Means for Earth 1218

Better Mapping of Greenland Ice Loss 0918

Greenland’s Biggest Fire Is a ‘Warning’ for Its Future 0418

Ice Cores Show Greenland’s Melting Is Unprecedented in at Least 4 Centuries 0318

Algae on Greenland Ice Sheet Significantly Hasten Its Melting 1217

As Greenland Melts, Where’s the Water Going? 1217

These Are the Melting Glaciers That Might Someday Drown Your City 1117 - Peterman, Jacobshavn, Zachariae

Mapping Greenland Has Produced Some Surprising - Worrying – Results 1017

'Unusual' Greenland Wildfires Right Now Are Linked to Peat 0817

Despite Summer Snow, Greenland Is Still Melting 0717

Wildfires Dumped a Huge Amount of Soot atop Greenland’s Ice Sheet 0617

So Much Water Pulsed thru a Melting Glacier, It Warped Earth’s Crust 0517 - 6.7 billion tons in 4 months

Troubling News about Greenland’s Most Enormous Glacier 0417 281 GT of ice loss annually.  Fjords extend far, far inland.

Data Are Now Coming In from NASA’s Study of Greenland’s Melting 0217

Greenland Ice Melt Could Push Atlantic Circulation to Collapse 0117

'The Arctic Is Unraveling,' Conclude Scientists after Latest Climate Report 1216

History Reveals Greenland Ice Might Melt Much Faster Than Believed 1216 - It was ice-free 25% of last 1.4 million years.

Greenland Is Melting from Above and Below.  Scientists Say They’re Connected. 1016

Greenland May Be Losing Ice Even Faster than We Thought 0916

Greenland Lost a Staggering 1 Trillion Tons of Ice in Just 4 Years 0716 - slight acceleration from the 4 years before

Deep-Blue Ponds and Streams Highlight Melting on Greenland Ice Sheet 0716

Greenland Was Hotter than New York City Last Week 0616

Record Greenland Melting Caused by Surprising Feedback Loop 0616 - Growing Arctic sea ice LOSS warms ice more.

Greenland Ice Sheet Melting Has Started Early 0416

Early Greenland Ice Sheet Melt Has Researchers Concerned 0416

Heat Wave in Greenland Triggers Record Early Start to Ice Melt Season 0416

Why Greenland Could Also Melt Faster than Expected 0416 - several processes, including warming sea water underneath

Bacteria Could Be Speeding Up the Darkening of Greenland's Ice 0316

James Hansen Warns of Much Worse than Expected Sea Level Rise 0316 - take 2 on study above in Ice Dynamics

We Had All Better Hope These Scientists Are Wrong about Earth’s Future 0316 - take 1 on study above in Ice Dynamics

Greenland’s Melting Is ‘Feeding on Itself’ 0316

What the Earth Will Be Like in 10,000 years, according to Scientists 0216

Greenland Ice Sheet Melts up to 1/3 Faster under Cloudy Skies 0116

New Discovery Shows Greenland Could Be Making Sea-Level Rise Even Worse 0116

Contribution of the Greenland Ice Sheet to Sea Level over the Next Millennium 0619

     5-33 cm by 2100 and 56-720 cm by 3000, depending on emissions scenario and other factors.  Panel A is about temperature increase at Greenland and Panel B is about sea level rise as a result for Greenland.  RCP 8.5 is the fastest global temperature rise modeled and RCP 2.6 the slowest.

     Below that (top 4) are maps for the year 3000 of ice-freee areas now and under under the scenarios.

Fig. 2 Observed 2008 state and simulations of the Greenland Ice Sheet at year 3000.(A) Observed 2008 ice extent (53). (B to D) Likelihood (percentiles) of ice cover as percentage of the ensemble simulations with nonzero ice thickness. Likelihoods less than the 16th percentile are masked. (E) Multi-year composite of observed surface speeds (61). (F to H) Surface speeds from the control simulation. Basin names shown in (A) in clockwise order are southwest (SW), central-west (CW), northwest (NW), north (NO), northeast (NE), and southeast (SE). RCP 2.6 (B and F), RCP 4.5 (C and G), and RCP 8.5 (D and H). Topography in meters above sea level (m a.s.l.) [(A) to (H)].

2015 Articles and earlier

Greenland Ice Sheet Is Shrinking at High Rate 1215 - take 2 on study

Greenland’s Staggering Amount of ice Loss Is Getting Worse 1215 - take 1 on study

Greenland Just Opened up a Major New Ice Floodgate into the Ocean 1115

5 Trillion Tons of Ice Lost Since 2002 - 0915

Greenland Melt Prompts NASA Fears of Coastal Flooding 0815

World's Fastest-Melting Glacier Loses Massive Chunk in 2 Days 0815

OMG… Greenland’s Ice Sheets Are Melting Fast.  Look Underneath. 0815

Medium-Large Earthquakes Are Shaking Greenland, as Icebergs Calve 0615

Scientists Can Finally Explain Why Huge Lakes atop Greenland Are Vanishing 0615

Our Polar Regions Are Simply 'Melting Away.’  It's a Beautiful Disaster. 0115

Models of Greenland Ice Melting Could Be Way Off.  Florida Beware! 1214

Greenland’s Dark Snow May Start Global Warming Feedback Loop 0914

Greenland Ice Loss Doubles from Late 2000s - 0814

Greenland Glaciers More Susceptible to Melt Than Thought 0514

Greenland Glacier Hits Record Speed 0214

Greenland “Mega Canyon” Sends Water to the Sea 0813

Why Greenland Melting Is Biggest Climate Disaster of All 0113

Arctic Wildfires Speed Melting of Greenland Ice 1212

Greenland Lost 200 Billion Ton of Ice per Year 2003-10 1112

Greenland Ice Sheet Cannot Survive Current CO2 Level 1012

Greenland Melting Breaks Record 4 Weeks Early 0812

Greenland Aug 2012 Ice Summary 0812

Greenland Lost 422 GT of Ice in 2011 0812

Iceberg 2 x Manhattan, from Greenland 0712 

Data Sheds Light on Speed of Greenland Glaciers 0512 

Summary #1 - 1.6°C Warming Makes Greenland Ice Melt Away 0312 

Summary #2 - Greenland Ice Sheet Vulnerable to Less Warming Than Previously Thought 0312 

Summary #3 - Greenland Ice Melt May Soon Become Irreversible 0312 

Greenland Ice Unstable 1.6°C Above Pre-Industrial - Robinson 0312 - PDF 

Greenland Shed 100 Billions Tons of Ice in 2010 1211

Second Giant Ice Island Set to Break off Greenland 0911 

Accelerating Arctic Melt Raises Sea Level Rise Projections 0511

Speed of Greenland Ice Melt Sets New Record 0111 

Greenland Loses Ice Sheet 4 x Size of Manhattan 0810 

Greenland Rebound Accelerates 0510 

‘Dramatic’ Ice Melt in NW Greenland since 2005 Exceeds Projections 0310 

Greenland Losing 273 cu km Ice / Year 1109 

Greenland Ice Mass Loss 1958-2007 2008 - WEB

Greenland Melts Quicker 0206

Section Map: Ice